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Muscle Action

Bio 241

MUSCLEACTIONORIGIN & INSERTION
Gluteus Maximus Extends thigh at hip joint and laterally rotates thigh; helps lock knee in extension. RMA: extends torso
Iliopsoas Psoas Major Psoas major and iliacus muscle acting together flexes thigh at hip joint, laterally rotates thigh, and flex trunk of hip as in sitting up from supine position
Iliacus
Gluteus Minimus Abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh
Tensor Fasciae Latae Flexes and abducts thigh at hip joint
Gluteus Medius Abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh
Pronator Teres Pronates forearm at radioulnar joint and weakly flexes forearm at elbow joint
Pronator Quadratus Pronates forearm at radioulnar joint
Brachioradialis Flexes forearm at elbow joint and pronates and supinates forearm at radioulnar joint to neutral position
Brachialis Flexes forearm at elbow joint
Supinator Supinates forearm at radioulnar joint
Orbicularis Oris Closes and protudes lips, as in kissing, compresses lips against teeth; and shapes lips during speech
Buccinator Presses cheeks against teeth and lips, as in whistling, blowing, and sucking; draws corner of mouth laterally; and assists in mastication (chewing) by keeping food between teeth (and not btw teeth and cheeks)
Zygomaticus Major Draws angle of mouth laterally and superiorly, as in smiling
Levator Angulis Oris Draws angle of mouth laterally and superiorly
Depressor Anguli Oris Draws angle of mouth laterally and inferiorly, as in opening mouth
Levator Labii Superioris Raises upper lip
Depressor Labii Inferioris Depresses (lowers) lower lip
Zygomaticus Minor Raises (elevates) upper lip, exposing maxillary (upper) teeth
Mentalis Elevates and protudes lower lip and pulls skin of chin up, as in pouting
External Anal Sphincter Keeps anal canal and anus closed
Bulbospongiosus Helps expel urine during urination; helps propel semen along the urethra, assists in erection of penis in males; constricts vaginal orifice and assists in erection of clitoris in females
External Urethral Sphincter Helps propel last drops of urine and semen in males and urine in females
Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexes distal phalanx of thumb at the interphalangeal joint
Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexes and abducts hand (radial deviation) at wrist joint
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexes and adducts hand (ulnar deviation) at wrist joint
Occipitofrontalis (Frontal Belly) Draws scalp anteriorly, raises eyebrows, and wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally as in look of surprise
Coracobrachialis Flexes and adducts arm at shoulder joint
Infraspinatus Laterally rotates arm at shoulder joint
Subscapularis Medially rotates arm at shoulder joint
Supraspinatus Assists deltoid muscle in abducting arm at shoulder joint
Teres Major Extends arm at shoulder joint and assists in adduction and medial rotation of arm at shoulder joint
Teres Minor Laterally rotates and extends arm at shoulder joint
Trapezius Superior fibers upward rotates scapula; middle fibers abduct scapula; inferior fibers depress and upward rotate scapula; superior and inferior fibers together rotate scapula upward; stabilizes scapula. RMA: superior fibers can help extend head
Rhomboid Minor Elevates and adducts scapula and rotates it downward; stabilizes scapula
Rhomboid Major Elevates and adducts scapula and rotates it downward; stabilizes scapula
Levator Scapulae Elevates scapula and rotates it downward
Pectoralis Minor Abducts scapula and rotates it downward. RMA: elevates rib 3-5 during forced inhalation when scapula is fixed
Serratus Anterior Abducts scapula and rotates it upward. RMA: Elevates ribs when scapula is stabilized. Known as "boxer's muscle" b/c it is important in horizontal arm movement such as punching and pushing
Quadratus Femoris Laterally rotates and stabilizes hip joint
Adductor Longus Adducts and flexes thigh at hip joint and rotates thigh* RMA: extends thigh
Adductor Brevis Adducts and flexes thigh at hip joint and rotates thigh RMA: extends thigh
Adductor Magnus Adducts thigh at hip joint and rotates thigh; anterior part flexes thigh at hip joint, and posterior part extends thigh at hip joint*
Gracilis Adducts thigh at hip joint, medially rotates thigh, and flexes leg at knee joint
Pectineus Flexes and adducts thigh at hip joint
Temporalis Elevates and retracts mandible
Masseter Elevates mandible, as in closing mouth
Posterior Scalene Acting together, right and left posterior scalene elevate second ribs during deep inhalation. RMA: Flex cervical vertebrae; acting singly, laterally flex and slightly rotate cervical vertebrae
Middle Scalene Acting together, right and left anterior scalene and middle scalene muscles elevate first ribs during deep inhalation. RMA: flex cervical vertebrae; acting singly, laterally flex and slightly rotate cervical vertebrae
Anterior Scalene Acting together, right and left anterior scalene and middle scalene muscles elevate first ribs during deep inhalation. RMA: flex cervical vertebrae; acting singly, laterally flex and slightly rotate cervical vertebrae
Corrugator Supercilii Draws eyebrow inferiorly and wrinkles skin of forehead vertically as in frowning
Orbicularis Oculi Closes eyes
Pectoralis Major As a whole, adducts and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint; clavicular head flexes arm, and sternocostal head extends flexed arm to side of trunk
Latissimus Dorsi Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm at shoulder joint; draws arm inferiorly and posteriorly RMA: elevates vertebral column and torso
Tibialis Posterior Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint and inverts (supinates) foot at intertarsal joints
Popliteus Flexes leg at knee joint and medially rotates tibia to unlock the extended knee
Gastrocnemius Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint and flexes leg at knee joint
Soleus Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint
Plantaris Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint and flexes leg at knee joint
Splenius Cervicis Acting together, extend head; acting singly, laterally flex and/or rotate head to same side as contracting muscle
Splenius Capitis Acting together (bilaterally), extend head and extend vertebral column; acting singly (unilaterally), laterally flex and/or rotate head to same side as contracting muscle
Tibialis Anterior Dorsiflexes foot at ankle joint and inverts (supinates) foot at intertarsal joints
Extensor Hallucis Longus Dorsiflexes foot at ankle joint and extends proximal phalanx of great toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
Extensor Digitorum Longus Dorsiflexes foot at ankle joint and extends distal and middle phalanges of each toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
Hamstrings A collective designation for 3 separate muscles
Biceps Femoris Flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint
Semitendinosus Flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint
Semimembranosus Flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint
Platysma Draws outer part of lower lip inferiorly and posteriorly as in pouting; depresses mandible
Transversus Abdominis Compresses abdomen
Internal Oblique Acting together, compress abdomen and flex vertebral column; acting singly, laterally flex vertebral column, especially lumbar portion, and rotate vertebral column
External Oblique Acting together (bilaterally), compresses abdomen, and flex vertebral column; acting singly (unilaterally), laterally flex vertebral column, especially lumbar portion, and rotate vertebral column
Rectus Abdominis Flexes vertebral column, especially lumbar portion, and compresses abdomen to aid in defecation, urination, forced exhalation, and childbirth. RMA: flexes pelvis on the vertebral column
Iliocostalis Cervicis Acting together, muscles of each region (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar) extend and maintain erect posture of vertebral column of their respective regions; acting singly, laterally flex vertebral column of their respective regions to same side as contract
Iliocostalis Thoracis Acting together, muscles of each region (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar) extend and maintain erect posture of vertebral column of their respective regions; acting singly, laterally flex vertebral column of their respective regions to same side as contract
Iliocostalis Lumborum Acting together, muscles of each region (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar) extend and maintain erect posture of vertebral column of their respective regions; acting singly, laterally flex vertebral column of their respective regions to same side as contract
Pubococcygeus Supports and maintaints position of pelvic viscera; resists increase in intra-abdominal pressure during forced exhalation, coughing, vomiting, urination, and defecation; constricts anus, urethra, and vagina
Levator Ani
Spinalis Capitis Extends head and vertebral column
Longissimus Capitis Acting together, extends head and vertebral column; acting singly, laterally flex and rotate head to same side as contracting muscle
Splenius Capitis Extend head; acting together , muscle of each region (cervical and thoracic) extend vertebral column of their respective regions
Semispinalis Capitis Acting together, extend head and vertebral column; acting singly, rotate head to side opposite contracting muscle
Internal Intercostals Contraction draws adjacent ribs together to further decrease anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of thoracic cavity during forced exhalation
External Intercostals Contraction elevates ribs and increases anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of thoracic cavity, resulting in inhalation; relaxation depresses ribs and decreases anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of thoracic cavity, resulting in exhalation
Diaphragm Contractions of diaphragm causes it to flatten and increases vertical dimension of thoracic cavity, resulting in inhalation; relaxtion of diaphragm causes it to move superiorly and decreases vertical dimension of thoracic cavity resulting in exhalation
Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius All four heads extend leg at knee joint; rectus femoris muscle acting alone also flexes thigh at hip joint
Deltoid Lateral fibers abducts arm at shoulder joint; anterior fibers flex and medially rotate arm at shoulder joint; posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate arm at shoulder joint Origin: acromial extremity of clavicle (anterior fibers), acromion of scapula (lateral fibers), and spine of scapula (posterior fibers) Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Biceps Brachii Flexes forearm at elbow joint, supinates forearm at radioulnar joints, & flexes arm at shoulder joint Origin: long head originates fr. tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula (supraglenoid tubercle) Insertion: radial tuberosity of radius & bicipital aponeurosis*
Triceps Brachii Insertion: olecranon of ulna Extends forearm at elbow joint and extends arm at shoulder joint Long head orig fr infra glenoid tubercle, a projection inferior to glenoid cavity of scapula. Lateral head orig fr lateral & posterior surface of humerus. Medial head orig. fr. entire posterior surface of humerus inferior to a groove for the radial nerve
Created by: simplyri