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GI Phys Small Int.

USCSOM Physiology: GI Part IV - Small Intestine

What is segmentation? muscle contraction that mixes but does move food
What is peristalsis? coordinated reflex propelling mm. through small intestine
What effects do opiates have on small intestine motility? increase uproductive contractile activity, decreased secretion
How does serotonin affect small intestine motility? agonists increase contraction/secretion; antagonists decrease contraction/secretion
What are some reflexes that regulate motility and how do they affect it? perstaltic reflex increase motility, intestinointestinal reflex decrease motility, gastroileal reflex increases motility
What anatomical features help to increase small intestine surface area? plicae circularis, villi, microvilli
What is a luminal digestive enzyme? act in free solution in the lumen; include salivary, gastric, pancreatic enzymes
What are membrane digestive enzymes? produced by villi, bound to cell surface
What two types of enzymes break down carbohydrates? amylase (luminal) and di-saccharidases (membrane)
How and in what form are carbohydrates absorped? glucose/galactose by co-transport with Na, fructose by facilitated diffusion
Describe lactose intolerance. Lack of lactase, inability to break down lactose in dairy products
What class of enzymes break down proteins and where are they produced? proteases produced by the pancreas
What activates pepsinogen? HCl
What activates trypsinogen? enterokinase
What activates most pancreatic proteases? trypsin
What is Hartnup Disease? non-functional tryptophan transporter
What are the 3 principle dietary lipids? triglycerides, phopholipids, cholesterol
What is the function of pancreatic lipase? digests triglycerides, secreted from pancreas, requires colipase
What does cholesterol ester hydrolase produce? cholesterol and FFA
What is the function of phospholipase A2? cleaves FAs from phospholipids
What is the rate limiting bile step? cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase
Where do bile salts get reabsorped? terminal ileum only
What stimulates bile release from gall bladder? CCK and ACh from fat and protein in diet
What are gallstones formed from? mostly cholesterol and bilirubin
What is steatorrhea? excretion of fat in the stool
What are some common causes of steatorrhea? pancreatic insufficiency, abnormal acidity in the duodenum, inadequate bile salts
What vitamins are transported along with fats? A, D, E, K
What vitamin and hormone regulate calcium absorption? Vit D and PTH
What electrolytes are absorbed in the jejunum? NAHCO3
What electrolytes are absorbed in the ileum? NaCl
What happens to electrolytes in the colon? Na absorbed, K+ secreted
What type of cells are responsible for most secretion in the small intestine? crypt
What transporter is blocked by the diuretic furosemide? Na/K/Cl cotransporter
What are the two types of choride channels in the small intestine? Ca activated channels (ACh) and CFTR channels (cAMP)
What are the 3 general causes of absorption? impaired absorption, osmotic, secretory
What is are the causes of Celiac disease? abnormal immune response to gluten, genetic
What are common symptoms of celiac disease? malabsorption, flattening of the villi, immune cells invading the luminal lining
What is IBD? inflammatory bowel disease including crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
What happens in crohn's disease? chronic inflammation of intestine/ileum, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss
What Tx are used for crohn's disease? anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, surgery
What is ulcerative colitis? inflamation and ulcers in the outer layers of the large intestine
Created by: jlellerm