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Boot Loaders

GRUB Legacy and GRUB2

Is a utility that boots a Linux Kernel,or any other OS The Grand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB)
GRUB has 2 stages: 1. Stage 1 is the info stored in the MBR - holds location of the boot information 2. Stage 2 is the OS software located on the Boot Patition
GRUB uses a menu to: allow a user to select between multiple OSs
If no menu selection is made GRUB loads a: Default OS after a specified time
GRUB creates a: GRUB root using the /boot directory -GRUB root contains the installed STAGE 2 files
To install GRUB use command: grub-install
grub-install Example: To install GRUB on the second hard drive grub-install --root-directory=/boot sd1
GRUB uses one of the following configuration files: /boot/grub/menu.lst - (Suse) /boot/grub/grub.conf - Fedora
Common options in the GRUB configuration file; Specify the OS that boots as DEFAULT default default=0 boots the first OS in the menu default=Fedora - boots the OS with Fedora as the title
Common options in the GRUB configuration file; Set the number of seconds GRUB waits before automatically booting the default OS timeout
Common options in the GRUB configuration file; Specify the image file which is displayed for the Graphical Boot MENU gfxmenu splashimage Example: splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
Common options in the GRUB configuration file; Disable/Enable the menu that lists the OSs hiddenmenu
Displays the available operating systems #hiddenmenu
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: Specify the title a user sees in the menu title
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: specify the location of the root file system root Example: root (hd0,0) - = First partition of first hard drive
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: Specify the kernel for the entry and kernel options kernel Example: kernel /vmlinuz-
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: Specifies the initial RAM disk (initrd image) file( the image that should be used) initrd /vmlinuz-
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: Specify the number of SECTORS to be read chainloader
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: Prevent unauthorized boot of the OS (when set, Password is required lock
Common options in the GRUB configuration file: requires authentication for the options in the GRUB menu password
To Create an encrypted password - Requires users to have authentication for options in the GRUB menu: 1. Type grub-md5-crypt in shell prompt 2. When prompted type and confirm password and copy the hashed output 3. Type password -md5 hashed o/p in GRUB configuration file
Updated version of GRUB - any version of GRUB 1.98 or later GRUB2
GRUB2 configuration file -do not edit directly /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Command to update /boot/grub/grub.cfg update-grub
Files update-grub uses to generate (update)the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file 1. /etc/defualt/grub 2. /etc/grub.d/
Directory that holds scripts that are read by update-grub to generate the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file /etc/grub.d
Primary configuration file for changing GRUB2 menu display settings /etc/defualt/grub
Script files in /etc/grub.d/ directory: Sets initial appearance items such as Grapics Mode, Default Selection, Timeout -settings typically imported from /boot/grub/grub.cfg 00_header
Script files in /etc/grub.d/ directory: Sets GRUB2 background images, text colors, selection highlighting, and themes 05_debian_theme
Script files in /etc/grub.d/ directory: Identifies kernels on the root device for the OS in use and creates menu entries 10_linux
Script files in /etc/grub.d/ directory: Executes os-prober to search for other OSs (Windows, Linux etc) and lace teh results in the GRUB2 menu 30_os-prober
Script files in /etc/grub.d/ directory: Allows for CUSTOM menu entries which are imported directly into /boot/grub/grub.cfg without any changes 40_custom
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Sets the default menu entry GRUB_DEFAULT
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Automatically sets the LAST selected OS from menu as the default OS on next boot GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT GRUB_SAVEDEFAULT=true
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Determines how long a screen will be displayed GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=3
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Displays a counter (if =false) for duration specified in GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT_QUITE
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Determines how long to wait for user interaction before booting into the default OS GRUB_TIMEOUT
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Adds entries to the end of the 'linux' command line for both normal and recovery modes GRUB_CMDLINE-LINUX
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Sets the RESOLUTION of the graphical menu GRUB_GFXMODE
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Plays a single beep prior to GRUB2 menu display GRUB_INIT_TUNE
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Sets the BACKGROUND image during the GRUB2 menu display (use full file path) GRUB-BACKGROUND GRUB-BACKGROUND=/usr/share/image/back.png
/etc/default/grub configuration Options: Enables/Disables the os-prober check of other partitions for OSs GRUB_DISABLE_OS_PROBER (=true/false)
Determine which version of GRUB2 is installed grub-install -v grub2-install -v
Created by: johnadream