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Boot Process

The four stages of the Boot Process

BIOS Stage 1: When power is supplied to the processor: The processor is hard-coded to look at a special memory address for code to execute
BIOS Stage 1: The MEMORY address contains: A pointer or jump program that instructs the processor to find the BIOS program
BIOS Stage 1: The processor loads the BIOS program - the first BIOS program to run is: Power-On-Self_test (POST)
BIOS Stage: 1 If POST is successful, then BIOS identifies other system devices using CMOS settings and info supplied by devices themselves: Plug and play devices are allocated system resources - displays info about keyboard, mouse, and IDE drives in the system - then info about devices and system resources are displayed
BIOS Stage 1: The BIOS then searches for a boot sector using the BOOT ORDER in the: CMOS
Boot Loader Stage 2: BIOS searches the boot sector for a Master Boot Record (MBR)
Boot Loader Stage 2: BIOS loads the ----- code form the MBR Primary boot loader
Boot Loader Stage 2: The PRIMARY boot loader does one of the following: 1. Examines the partition table marked as bootable - loads the boot sector from that partition which contains a SECONDARY boot-loader that locates the OS kernel 2. Locates an OS kernel directly
Boot Loader Stage 2: When the SECONDARY boot loader is in RAM and executing: A Splash screen is commonly displayed and an optional INITIAL RAM DISK (initd image) is loaded into memory
Boot Loader Stage 2: The initd image has Root permissions and can be used to access the ACTUAL /root filesystem regardless of whether it exists on the local computer or an external device
Boot Loader Stage 2: The initd image is used to: Mount the ACTUAL filesystem and load the kernel into RAM
Boot Loader Stage 2: With the images ready the secondary boot loader invokes the: Kernel Image and the kernel takes over
OS Kernel Stage 3: The KERNEL resides in the: /boot directory
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kernel initializes the: hardware on the system
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kernel locates and loads the: linuxrc program which configures the OS
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kernel dismounts and erases the RAM disk image (initd image)
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kernel looks for: Hardware and loads the DRIVERS
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kennel mounts the: root partiton
OS Kernel Stage 3: The kernel loads and executes the: initial (init) proccess
init Stage 4: by default the initial (init) process is /sbin/init
init Stage 4: If /sbin/init is the initial process the kernel reads a file called: /etc/inittab to determine what other programs to run
init Stage 4: /etc/inittab determines what other programs to run, such as: Scripts to mount partitions or start services known as DAEMONS
init Stage 4: /etc/inittab determines what other programs to run, such as a: console for a LOGIN
init Stage 4: /etc/inittab determines what other programs to run, such as an: X Display Manager (XDM) for a GRAPHICAL login
Because it is the first process to run on the system, the initial program (init) is assigneds a: Process ID of 1
Created by: johnadream