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Files Directories

Miscellanious

QuestionAnswer
Directs the standard o/p to the /tmp/deleteme file , then directs the standard error messages be sent to the same place as the standard o/p. Both the list of files in the /bin directory and the error message are written to the file ls /bin /nonesuch > /tmp/deleteme 2>&1
Write the contents of the /bin directory to the /tmp/deleteme file, error message '/nonesuch not found' to the screen, because standard error messages are directed to the same place standard o/p before standard has been directed to the file ls /bin /nonsuch 2>&1 /tmp/deleteme
Reads items from standard input and breaks up long lists of arguments into smaller, usable lists xargs
Overcomes a 128 KB shell command size restriction in older Linux kernels - and commonly takes input from: find, ls, locate, and grep -l xargs
xargs Options: Ignore space names in files find / -print0 -name *.odt | xargs -0 rm
xargs Options:Replace the initial argument of a command with the argument from the standard input xargs -l
Find all the .jpg files on te computer and copies them into the /home/usr/Pictures directory find / -name `*.jpg` | xags -l var1 cp var1 /home/usr/Pictures
Takes input from the unordered _file.txt file and sends it to the SORT command and then writes a new file named ordered_file.txt sort < unordered_file.txt > ordered_file.txt
ls Option: list in reverse order ls -r
mv Options: Overwrites directory that already exists in the destination directory mv -f
mv Options: Prompt before overwriting a directory in the destination directory mv -i
mv Options: Never overwrite files in the destination directory mv -n
Move or rename directories and files. Moving directories erases the source directory and places it in the destination mv
Delete an EMPTY directory rmdir
Delete directory, sub-directories and files without prompting rm -rf
Directory contains binary commands that are available to all users /bin
Directory contains the kernel and bootloader files /boot
Directory contains device files that represet the devices used by the system , such asa hard-drive, mouse, and printer /dev
Directory contains configuration files specific to the system /etc
Directory contains by default the user home directories /home
Directory contains shared program libraries and kernel modules /lib
Directory contains the /cdrom and /floppy directories /media
Directory is an empty directory, and often used for temporarily mounted filesystems /mnt
Directory contains the additional programs on the system /opt
Directory is the root user's home directory, Not to be confused the the root of the system (/) /root
Directory contains information about the system's state and processes /proc
Directory contains system binary commands /sbin
Directory contains files for servers such as HTTP and FTP servers /srv
Directory contains the sysfs virtual file system which displays info about devices and drivers /sys
Directory contains temporary files created by programs during system use (should be periodically cleared - have its own partition) /tmp
Directory contains system commands and utilities /usr
Directory contains data files that change constantly (volatile) /var
/var Sub-directory: holds email in boxes /var/mail
/var Sub-directory: holds files waiting for processing, such as print jobs or scheduled jobs /var/spool
/var Sub-directory: holds www or proxy cache files /var/www
List the FIRST 10 lines of a file (default). head
List the first 20 lines of the /home/myfile file head -n 20 /home/myfile
List the LAST 10 lines of a file (default) tail
List the LAST 20 lines of the /home/myfile file tail -n 20 /home/myfile
List all lines of the /home/myfile EXCEPT the first 15 line tail -n -15 /home/myfile
Display the file TYPE - shows whether the file is a text,data, xml, or other type of file file
File uses signatures in: /usr/share misc/magic /usr/share/misc/magic.mgc /etc/magic
cp Options: Overwrites files that already exist in the DESTINATION directory cp -f
cp Options: Prompts before overwriting a file in the DESTINATION directory cp -i
cp Options: Update the existing DESTINATION file cp -u
cp Options: Create a HARD LINK rather than copying a file cp -l
cp Options: Create a SYMBOLIC LINK rather than copying a file cp -s
cp Example: Create a symbolic linked named /home/myfile that points to /home/text_link cp -s /home/myfile /home/text_link
ln Options: Create a backup of a file ln -b
ln Example: backup /home/asmith/myfile to /backup - copy myfile as myfile in /backup ln -b /home/asmith/myfile /backup
Derlates a file and overwrites the file information shred
shred Options: Specify the number of times to overwrite -default is 25 shred -n
shred Options: delete the inode shred -u
shred Options: display progress (Verbose) shred -v
shred Options: Overwrite the FILENAME with zeros shred -z
shred Example: Deletes the companyplan.txt file and overwrites the file with random information, then leave zeros in place of the file shred -u -z companyplan.txt
List file ATTRIBUTES lsattr
lsattr Options: Recursively list attributes of directories and their contents lsattr -R
lsattr Options: Display the program version lsattr - V
lsattr Options: List all files in directories lsattr -a
lsattr Options: List directories like other files, rather than listing their contents lsattr -d
lsattr Options: List the file's version/generation number lsattr -v
Created by: johnadream