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Process Management

Process Management & Tremination Commands

Start a process in the background, leaving the shell available for other commands Command &
The terminal from which a process is invoked is unusable (no other commands can run) until the process terminates Runs in the foreground
View the active jobs and see the job ID jobs
jobs Facts: job ID specific to the terminal session Each terminal has its own set of jobs Jobs from one terminal cannot be managed from a second terminal using job ID numbers
Send a job to the background bg [job ID]
Bring a job to the foreground fg [job ID]
Pause a job (send to background) and give it a job ID number Ctrl+z
Start a command with a higher or lower priority nice
nice value range (highest - lowest priority) 19 (lowest priority) - -20 (highest priority)
Specify a priority (with nice command) nice -n e.g. nice -n 7 gedit
Default nice value (if no value specified with nice command) -10
Default nice value for processes NOT executed with the nice command 0 (Zero)
Assign a NEW priority to a process that has already started using the PID of the process renice
renice Options: Specifies a priority (but assumed by default) renice -n
renice Options: Specify a user (root only renice -u
renice Options: Specify a group (root only) renice -g
Lower the priority of all processes owned by user userbob to 5 below the default (zero) renice 5 -u userbob
User who can change the default of other users and groups or raise a process priority above the default (Zero) root
Allow a command or shell script to continue running in the background after logging out form the shell nohup e.g. nohup gedit &
Terminate a process using a process ID (PID) and a specific --- signal kill
Stops and Restarts the process with the same process ID number - also causes process to reload its configuration file SIGHUP. -1 e.g. kill -1 6552 kill -SIGHUP 6552
Send an INTERRUPT signal to the process (same as using Ctrl+c) SIGINT, -2
Invoke a HARD kill - may not allow process to unhook its resources - RAM and other resources allocated to the process usually remain allocated to the process SIGKILL, -9
Stop the process after allowing it to unhook its resources (default kill command if no signal is specified SIGTERM, -15
List all signals available to the kill command kill -l
Terminate a process using the process name (can also use the SIGNAL commands) killall e.g. killall sshd
Elevate the kill command to highest PRIORITY ( -20) and then invoke a hard kill to stop the process 6754 kill -n20 6754
Kill a GUI object - (when run curser changes to an X, which is then used to click on the application you want to kill) xkill
Start a process with a high priority of -10 (must be root nice --10
Created by: johnadream