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Animation History

World History of Animated Films

TermDefinition
Emile Cohl Paris, France "Fantasmagorie" 1908 -2D paper puppets
Segundo de Chomon Spain "Train Collision", -Model Trains for SFX "The Electric Hotel" 1905 -Stopmotion of real objects
Arthur Cooper Great Britain "Matches; an Appeal" 1899 -stopmotion characature made of matches
Walter Ruttman Germany "Lichtspiel Opus (1-4)", 1921 -Shapes timed with musical score, hand colored
Hans Richter Switzerland/Germany "Rhythmus 21, 23, 25" (1920-1925) -Shapes timed with music to create "visual rhythm"
Viking Eggeling Sweden/Germany/Switzerland "Diagonal Symphonie" -movement and transformation of white shapes on black to convey rhythm.
Ladislas Starevitch Russia "Frogland" "Voice of the Nightingale" "The Mascot" -Stopmotion puppets of insects, animals, or fairytales
Lotte Reininger Germany/UK "The Adventures of Prince Achmed" 1926 -cardboard stop motion puppets photographed in silhouette
Oskar Fischinger Germany "Study No. 7" 1931 -abstract film of shapes moving to music US "Fantasia" -Toccata and Fugue sequence (Rolling Hills)
Hans Fischinger Germany "The Dilapidated Melody" 1942 "Der Schneemann" 1943 -2D animation over model background (Stereo-Optical effect used by Fleischer cartoons)
Anthony Gross and Hector Hoppin Paris "The Joy of Living (La Joire de Vivre)" 1934 -Strait ahead 2D animation
Norman Mclaren Canada (National Film Board of Canada) "Dots" 1940 -Synthedthic Sound (drawing on soundtrack) with animation drawing directly on cell. "Neighbors" 1952 -Pixelation (stop motion of people)
Seitaro Kitayama First Japanese animation studio (1921)
Sanae Yamamoto -"Momotaro the Undefeated" 1928 -learned at Kitayama's studio -became head of Toei Animation Studio ("Panda and the Magic Serpent" 1958)
Noburo Ofuji "The Black Cat" 1929, "Spring Song" 1931 -Chiyogami; animating with paper cutout puppets
Yasuji Murata "The Bat" 1930, "Our Baseball Match" 1931 -American style hand drawn "cell" animation
Mitsuyo Seo Pioneer of modern "Anime" Style -characters with big eyes against detailed background "Momotaro Sea Eagle" 1943, "Tiny Chibisuke's Big Adventure" 1935
Kihachiro Kawamoto "The Deamon" 1972, "Dojoji Temple" 1976 Stop motion puppet animation, studied under Jiri Trnka
Hayao Miyazaki Founder of Ghibli Studio "Spirited Away" "Castle in the Sky"
Satoshi Kohn Famous anime film director "Perfect Blue" 1997, "Millennium Actress" 2001, "Tokyo Godfathers" 2003, "Paprika" 2006, "Good Morning" 2008
George Pal Holland, US" "Puppettoons" '30s-'40s -replacement stop motion shorts for US audience
Karel Zeman Czechoslovakia "Inspiration" 1948 -Replacement stop motion with blown glass
Jiri Trinka Czechoslovakia "The Hand" 1965 -puppets appearing as dolls based on Czech tradition, and having one expression to simulate an actor's mask.
Alexander Alexieff and Claire Parker founders of "Pinscreen" animation -screen of pins used in or out to form an image, then photographed in succession.
Halas and Batchelor husband and wife founders of British Animation studio "Animal Farm" 1954 -1st British animated film
Blur Frame an out of focus frame in stop motion to better simulate movement
Synthetic Sound lines drawn on film soundtrack to give unique sound
Stopmotion when anything is moved and photographed one frame at a time
Puppet motion animating a puppet with movable parts
replacement stopmotion animating models with replaceable parts
Pixelation animating human beings to behave in ways not normally possible
object stopmotion moving props with photography
claymation clay or plastic moved or sculpted
Record Talkie Japanese style of animating around available records/songs
Benshi Narrator Japanese style of a narrator voicing over an animation
Chiyogami paper cutout stop motion puppets with ornate patterns
Bruno Bozzetto Italian Animation Director "Allegro Non Troppo" 1976 -Fantasia parody, having animation over classical music with live action segments. "Grasshoppers" 1991
John Whitney "Vertigo" 1957 -1st used computer graphics in title sequence
John Whitney Jr. "Westworld" 1973 Pixelated computer graphics robot view
"Star Trek II" 1982 ILM-Genesis sequence CGI in film
"Tron" Extensive use of CGI
"Adventures of Andre and Wally B." 1984 Lucastfilm Computer Graphics headed by John Lassetter -1st use of motion blur/squash and stretch.
"Young Sherlock Holms" 1985 1st photorealistic CGI character "Stained Glass Night"
"Jurassic Part" 1993 ILM first photorealistic dinosaurs integrated with live action.
"Toy Story" 1995 Pixar 1st CGI feature animation.
Rotoscope Method of tracing over live action footage for animated films.
Motion Capture tracking a live person's movements and applying them to a computer model for CG animated films
Eclair Russian word for "Rotoscoping" implemented for Socialist Realism
Socialist Realism style implemented by Soviet Union to convey goals of socialism and glorify the working class.
Soyuzmultfilm Russian Animation Studio known for Eclair films such as "the Scarlet Flower" 1952.
Lev Atamanov Russian Animator and Director of Eclair films at Soyuzmltfilm
Fedor Khitruk Russian Animator and Director on film "History of a Crime" 1961 which was first Russian film to use modern style as opposed to Eclair.
Created by: GJBarry