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anatomy & oral struc

Stack #220981

QuestionAnswer
cranium the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
temporal bones two fan-shaped bones, one on each side of the skull, above each ear
parietal bones two bones, one on each side, that make up the roof and side walls covering the brain
frontal bone a single bone in the frontal or anterior region that makes up the forehead
occipital bone one large, thick bone at the lower back of the head that forms the base of the skull and contains a large opening for the spinal cord
ethmoid bone a spongy bone located between the eye orbits that helps form the roof and part of the anterior nasal fossa of the skull
sphenoid bone a large bone at the base of the skull, situated between the occipital and ethmoid bones
zygomatic bones two facial bones, one under each eye, that form and give shape to the cheek bone
malar another name for the zygomatic bones
maxilla bones two facial bones, one under each eye, that unite in the center to form the upper jaw and support the maxillar teeth
palatine bones two bones, one each on the left and the right, that form the hard palate of the outh and the nasal floor
nasal bones two bones, one left and one right, that form the arch or bridge of the nose
lacrimal bones two bones, one each, at the inner side or nose site of the orbital cavity
inferior nasal conchae two thin, scroll-like bones that form the lower part of the interior of the nasal cavity
mandible the strong, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw
vomer a single bone that forms the lower posterior part of the nasal septum
auditory ossicles small bones in the ear
malleus ossicle largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the mallet
incus ossicle one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the anvil
stapes ossicle one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the stirrup
hyoid horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue
sinus an air pocket or cavity in a bone that lightens the bone, warms the air intake, and helps form sounds
ethmoid sinus located in the ethmoid bone at the side of each eye
sphenoid sinus located in the sphenoid bone situated behind the eyes
frontal sinus located in the frontal bone or the forehead above each eye
maxillary sinus located in the maxilla
atrium of highmore maxillary sinus that is easily seen and is used as a landmark for indentifying radiographs in the mounting of films
suture a line where two or more bones unite in an immovable joint
sagittal suture the union line between the two parietal bones on the top of the skull
coronal suture juction of the frontal and the parietal bones "soft spot"
fontanel (little fountain) "soft spot"
lambdoid suture located between the parietal bone and the upper border of the occipital bone
temporoparietal suture located between the temporal and parietal bones
squamous suture another name for the temporoparietal suture
posterior nasal spine suture located in the upper arch between the nasal bone and superior maxilla
median palatine suture the union between the palatine bones
incisive suture located in the anterior area of the pre-maxilla and palatine processes
nasion a point where the nasofrontal suture is cut across by the middle plane of the skull
process is a progection or outgrowth of bone or tissue
symphysis in the center of the mandible, forms the chin, also called the mental or chin protuberance
protuberance projection
alveolar bone growth or border of the maxilla and the mandible makes up and forms the tooth sockets
condyloid posterior growth on the ramus of the mandible
coronoid anterior growth on the ramus of the mandible that serves as the attachment position for the temporalis muscle
frontal projection of maxilla meeting with the frontal one to form the eye orbit
infraorbital growth process from the zygomatic bone that articulates with the maxilla to form the lower side of the eye orbit
mastoid growth on the temporal bone behind the ear that is used for muscle attachment
pterygoid (wing-shapped) growth of the sphenoid bone extending downward from the bone; the most interior end of the process is know as the pterygoid hamulus
pterygoid hamulus a hook-like end that serves as a site for muscle attachment
styloid small, pointed growth from the lower border of the temporal bone; serves as a bone position for attachment of some tongue muscles
foramen and opening or hole in the bone for nerve and vessel passage
external auditory meatus a large opening in the temporal bone used for the passage of auditory nerves and vessels
magnum opening in the occipital bone for spinal cord passage
mandibular located on the lingual side of the ramus of the mandible, permits nerve and vessels passage
mental (chin) opening situated on left and right anterior areas of the mandible
lingual small opening in the center of the mental spine for nerve passage to the incisor area
incisive an opening in the maxilla behind the central incisors on the midline
supraorbital an opening in the frontal bone above the eye orbit
infraorbital an opening in the maxilla under the eye orbit
palatine anterior and posterior openings in the hard palate
zygomaticofacial an opening in the zygomatic bone
periosteum fibrous membrane
mucoperiosteum when the periosteum has a mucous surface
lining mucosa mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the lips and cheeks
masticatory mucosa elastic type of mucous membrane that undergoes stress and pull
specialized mucosa smoother mucous tissue found on the dorsal side of the tongue
ramus ascending part of the mandible that arises from the curved, lower arch
angle of the mandible area along the lower edge of the mandible where the upward curve of the mandible forms
sigmoid notch s-shaped curvature between the condyle and coronoid processes
mylohyoid ridge bony ridge on the lingual surface of the mandible
oblique line slanted, bony growth ridge on the facial side of the mandible
retromolar area the space located to the rear of the mandibular molars
mandibular notch an indentation on the lower border of the mandible, near the angle where the ramus starts into its upright position
articulates comes together
articular eminence forms the anterior boundary of the fossa and helps maintain the mandible in position
meniscus articular disc
synovail fluid cushions and lubricates the joint as it works in a hinge action movement
mastication chewing
temporal muscle a fan-shaped muscle on each side of the skull; elevates and lowers the jaw and can draw the mandible backward
masseter muscle the muscle that closes the mouth; the principal mastication muscle
internal pterygoid muscle (wing-shaped)muscle that raises the mandible to close the jaw
external pterygoid muscle muscle that opens the jaw and thrusts the mandible forward; assists with lateral movement
orbicularis oris muscle (kissing muscle) a cirbular muscle surrounding the mouth that compacts, compresses, and protrudes the lips
buccinator muscle principle cheek muscle; compresses the cheek, expels air through the lips, and aids in food mastication
mentalis muscle muscle of the chin (mental) that moces the chin tissue and raises or lowers the lower lip
trigeminal nerve a motor and sensory never that emerges from the brain and branches out
gasserian ganglion mass of nerves
ophthalmic gasserian ganglion a sensory nerve division with three branches
lacrimal nerve provides sensation for the lacrimal gland and eye conjunctiva
frontal nerve provides sensation for the forehead, scalp, uppereyelid, and nasal root
nasociliary nerve provides sensation for nose, eye, and eyebrow
maxillary gasserian ganglion a sensory division of the trigeminal nerve, with several branches
anterior palatine nerve provides sensation for the hard palate, periosteum, and mucous membrane for molars and premolar teeth
middle palatine nerve provides sensation for the soft palate, the uvula, and upper or soft part of the palate
olfactory nerve smell
optic nerve vision
oculomotor nerve upper eyelid and eyeball movement
trochlear nerve eye movement and sensation
trigeminal nerve dental and face nerve
abducens nerve lateral eye sense and movement
facial nerve taste sense and facial expression
vestibulocochlear nerve equilibrium, hearing, sensation
glossopharyngeal nerve taste sensation, swallowing, regulation breathing
vagus nerve taste sensation of epiglottis, pharynx, blood pressure, smooth muscle of gastrointestinal system, heart rate, digestion
accessory nerve body sensation, muscles of shoulders
hypoglossal nerve body sensation, tongue movement in speech and swallowing
posterior palatine nerve provides sensation for the tonsils and the soft palate
nasopalatine nerve provides sensation for the nose and the palate
infraorbital nerve subdivides into three parts: anterior, middle, and posterior
anterior nerve provides sensation to maxillary centrals, laterals, and canines
middle nerve provides sensation to the maxillary premolars and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar
posterior nerve provides sensation the the maxiallary second and third molar, and to the remaining roots of the maxillary first molar
zygomatic nerve provides sensation to the lacrimal and upper cheek area
sphenopalatine nerve sensory nerve ending for the maxillary anterior mucosal and palatine tissues
mandibular gasserian ganglion mixed nerve dividion that registers sensation and causes movement, has six branches
inferior alveolar nerve provides sensation to the mandibular teeth
mylohyoid nerve provides sensation to some muscles in the floor of the mouth
mental nerve provides sensation to the skin of chin and the lower lip
incisive nerve provides sensation to the anterior teeth and alveoli
lingual nerve provides some sensation to the tongue and causes some movement
buccal nerve provides sensation to the buccal gingiva and mucosa
carotid artery rises from the aorta right and left and divides in the neck to form two arteries
internal carotid artery blood supply to the brain and eyes
external carotid artery branches to the throat, face, tongue, and ears
infraorbital branch provides blood to the maxillary anterior teeth
inferior branch provides blood to the mandibular teeth
facial branch provides blood to the face, tonsils, palate, and submandibular gland
lingual branch divides into brances to serve the tongue, tonsils, soft palate, and throat
maxillary branch provides blood to the maxillary teeth
jugular vein transports blood from the head to the hear; drains to the internal jugular through three dividions
facial division carries blood from the face structures
maxillary division carries blood from the maxillary region
pterygoid venus plexus (network) collects the blood supply from the head
capillaries tiny blood bessels that help to transport blood from the veins to the arteries
expectorate spit
serum watery fluid
mucin sticky, slimy secretion
enzymes body-produced chemicals
parotid the larges salivary gland, located near the ear
submandibular a smaller gland located on the lower side of the face that secretes mucin and serus fluids with enzymes
sublingual smallest major salicary gland, situated in the floor of the mouth
lymph vessels that transport lymph fluid of plasma, water, and waste products
lymph capillaries tiny vessels or tubes that carry lymph fluid
lymph node a mass of lymph cells forming a unit of lymphatic tissue that are named after the formation site
tonsil a lymphatic tissue mass found in the posterior of the throat between the anterior and posterior fauces and on the back of the tongue; tonsils act as filters
adenoid lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx area; may provide protection similar to tonsils
antigens foreign, pathogenic substances intoduced into or produced by the body
lymphocytes lymph cells that assist in body defenses; b produce antibodies; T call the B
immunoglobulin plasma-made proteins, produced in lymph tissue, that are capable of acting as antibodies in the immune response
interferon proteins produced by cells exposed to viruses; help to provide immunity to unaffected cells
macrophages large phagocyte cells that ingest antigens and inflammatory bodies
microphanges neutrophilic cells that ingest smaller matter, such as bacteria
superior oris upper lip
inferium oris lower lip
vermilion border area where the pink-red lip tissue meets the facial skin
philturm median groove in the center external surface of the upper lip
caruncle small, fleshy mucous tissue elevations under the tongue
deglutition swallowing
median sulcus groove depression
papillae tissue growth
dorsal back
circumvallate the largest, v-shaped papillae, situated on the dorsal aspect of the tongue; sense bitter tastes
filiform the smallest, hair-like papillae covering the entire dorsal aspect of the tongue; so not sense taste
fungiform small, dark-red papillae on the middle and anterior dorsal surface and along the sides o the tongue; sense sweet, sour, and salty tastes
foliate on the posterior lateral borders of the tongue, and can be seen if the tongue is grasped with gauze and extende; sense sour tastes
palate roof of the mouth
hard palate composed of the palatine processes of the maxillae bones
rugae irregular folds or bumps on the surface
incisive papilla tissue growth situated at the anterior portion of palate behind the maxillary centrals
palatine raphe (ridge between the union of two halves) white streak in the middle of the palate
soft palate flexible portion of the palate; area where the gag reflex is present
uvula tissue structure hanging from the palate in the posterior of the oral cavity
vestibule open gum area between the teeth and the cheek
fauces constricted opening or passage lending from the mouth to the oral pharynx
glossopalatine anterior pillars
pharyngopalatine posterior pillars
Created by: b_nybabe101