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Text Manipulation

Change the nature and content of text files

QuestionAnswer
Removes characters and fields from lines of text in a text stream cut
cut Options: cuts characters cut -c
cut Options: cuts fields cut -f
cut Options: delimiter cut -d
cut Options: remove lines that do not have a field delimiter cut -s
cut Options: Select only bytes cut -b
Replace TABS with Spaces expand
Specify the number of spaces for expand (with no option, default is 8 spaces) expand -t (number)
Change SPACES into a tab unexpand
unexpand Option: Change all occurrences – without –a command changes only leading spaces unexpand -a
unexpand Option: Specify number of spaces to be changed (default is 8) unexpand -t (number)
Format lines in file or text stream to a uniform length (default is 75) fmt
fmt option: Specifies number of characters for the width fmt -w (number)
fmt Option: Prevent formatting lines shorter than the specified length fmt -s
Combines text form 2 files based on IDENTICAL fields - by default fields offset by whitespace join
join Options: Ignore case when searching for identical text join -i
join Options: Specifies number of field to use when joining join -j
join Options: Number of the field from the 1st listed file to use when joining join -1
join Options: Number of the field from the 2nd listed file to use when joining join -2
join Options: Character used as delimiter join -t
join Example: Using the 2nd field of each file as join field (o/p from sort piped to join) sort –n text1 | join-1 2 -2 2 text5
Places a line number in front of each line in text file nl
nl Options: Specifies the increment to use in numbering nl -i
nl Options: Starting number nl -v
nl Options: Specifies the text to place between number and the line- default is 2 spaces nl -s
Displays the contents of any file in octal, decimal, hexadecimal, or character format od
od Option: Radix of the file offset o = octal, d = decimal, x = hexadecimal and n = no offset od -A (Example: od –A d –t c text2b)
od Option: Controls the form of the display od -t
od Option: Character dump od -c
Adds contents of one file to the contents of another on a LINE BY LINE basis paste
paste Option: Specifies the character to be placed between the conjoined lines on each file (single character only) paste -d
paste Example; place a @ symbol between each line of file1 and file2 paste –d @ file1 file2
Formats a text file for printing pr
pr Options:Double space lines pr -d
pr Options: Specifies text to replace file name (default) in header pr -h
pr Options: Specify number of lines per page (default = 66) pr -l
pr Options: Have no header or footer pr -t
pr Options: Omit file name (blank) pr -m
pr Options: Create a left-hand margin pr -o
pr Example: Create a left hand margin of 4 spaes pr –o 4
Sorts each line in a file or text stream alphabetically sort
sort Options: Ignore blank leading spaces sort -b
sort Options: use 1st alpha-numeric character and ignore special characters sort -d
sort Options: Ignore case sort -f
sort Options: Sort by month sort -M
sort Options: Sort by numeric value sort -n
sort Options: sort in reverse order sort -r
Split lines of text form file or text stream into segments of specified number of lines split
split Options: Specify number of lines per file split -1 or -number
split Options: Splits into specified byte size instead of lines split -b
split Options: Use numeric suffixes rather than alphabetic for file names split -d
split Options: Specifies number of characters in the suffix split -a
split Example: Splits the AllNames file into individual files containing 50 lines = FiftyNames-001, FiftyNames002 etc. split -50 –d –a 3 AllNames FiftyNames
Filters identical lines form a file – lines must be adjacent (use sort) uniq
uniq Options: Print duplicate lines only uinq -d
uniq Options: Specifies number of initial words to skip (words delimited by white-space) unig -f
uniq Options: Specify the number of initial characters to skip uniq -s
uniq Options: Specifies number of characters to compare unig -w
uniq Options: Leave out duplicate lines uniq -u
Prints number of lines, words, and bytes from text in file or text stream wc
wc Options: Print BYTES wc -c
wc Options: print CHARACTERS = identical to bytes wc -m
wc Options: Print LINES wc -l
wc Options: Specifies length of longest line wc -L
wc Options: Print WORD COUNT wc -w
Transposes characters in a text stream (only works with character streams)- has 2 character sets - 1st set specifies characters to be changed 2nd set specifies how they should be changed - usually text stream derived from cat command (piped to command) tr
tr Options: Change all characters except those specified in 1st set tr -c
tr Options: Deletes characters found in 1st set tr -d
tr Options: Changes double-characters to single ones tr -s
tr Options: Truncate (shorten) the 1st set of characters to match size of 2nd set tr -t
Create reports based in data retrieved from files, build databases, or perform mathematical operations against numbers in text files awk
awk Options: Specifies file awk -f
awk Options: Specify DELIMITER to be used awk -F
awk Options: Used to designate FIELDS $#
awk Options: Used to insert a TAB \t
awk Options: Used to insert a NEW LINE \n
awk Options: Used to insert a form-feed character \f
awk Options: Used to insert a CARRIAGE RETURN \r
Created by: johnadream