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New Horizons CompTIA network+ Glossary Terms

AD (Active Directory) Directory service that provides a central repository for information about the users and resources on a windows 2000 or later network
Active Directory Users and Computers A windows 2000 and later administrative tool for creating and managing user and computer accounts
active hub retransmits the data with proper transmission voltage and current
address database an association of a computer's hexadecimal address with its friendly name
application errors errors relating to application or data files
APIPA (automatic private internet protocol) IP addressing system in which a client can assign an IP address to itself in the event that a DHCP server isn't available.
Backbone a high-speed network link connecting only segments
BDC (Backup Domain Contoller) windows NT server having a backup copy of domain security information. The BDC can validate logon and security access
Baseband Transmission method that uses the media in such a way that the entire capacity of the cable is taken up by a single transmission. Used in most networks.
Beaconing *within token ring networks When a station detects a hard error, it begins to transmit beacon frames which define a failure domain. The failure domain includes the station reporting the failure, its nearest active upstream neighbor (NAUN), and everything in between.
Binary digits(bit) A computer only know two states; ON and OFF. Each bit is either a one(1), or zero(0). The binary digit 1 represents "on," while the number 0 represents "off." The term "bit" is derived from binary digit. Eight bits make up a byte
Bindery Set of files that held user and other resource information in NetWare 3.x and earlier networks.
Bluetooth allows for the creation of small, short range, wireless networks comprised of PCs, keyboards,mice,PDAs, etc., usually within a single room. Bluetooth has a range of 10 meters, speeds of up to 1 Mbps and uses FHSS for its transmission method.
Boot PROM chip an add-on item to a network adapter, ,which helps a computer to boot entirely from a network server, therefore not using a local hard or floppy drive.
Bridge network devices that are more intelligent than repeaters because they can read the specific physical address of devices on one network and filter information before passing it on to another network segment.
Broadband transmission method in which the communicators use different frequencies to separate their messages from others by using the same media at the same time.
Brouters Handle both routable and non-routable features by acting as routers for routable protocols and bridges for non-routable protocols
Bus topology a network topology that consists of a linear transmission medium that is terminated at both ends
cable tester performs two functions, namely checking continuity and also the exact wiring order of a piece of cable
cabling the arterial system for any network, which carries within it the data that is the lifeblood of your network
Cache hits the number of times the NetWare operating system is able to retrieve information from server RAM, as opposed to reading from a hard disk, which is significantly slower. Higher values indicate better performance
CD server usually a stand-alone device with four or more CD-Rom drives. Can provide the entire enterprise with access to installation media, such as workstation applications, reference media and periodicals, or any other data needed by multiple users.
C.A.N Campus Area Network networks in geographically contiguous buildings connected together.
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection channel access method in which all systems listen for signals from all other systems and all systems have concurrent acccess to the media. If two systems transmit data at the same time, a collision occurs and data is retransmitted.
CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
CSMA/CA carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance
carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance channel access method similar to csma/cd, but the goal is to avoid rather than detect collisions. Before actual data is sent, an alert message is sent. Thus, if collisions do occur, they occur with the alert data, not the actual data.
channel access method determines the physical methodology by which data is sent across the transmitting media
CSU/DSU channel service unit/Data service unit
channel service unit/Data service unit forms the connection point between a T1 line and the customer's internal network.
child partition a partition located below another partition
client/server model the client/server model concerns networking and provides for distributed processing.
coaxial cable Has two conductors that share the same axis. Center cable is insulated by plastic foam, then a second conductor, foil wrap, and an external plastic tube. Coaxial must always be terminated at both ends and the outer conductor grounded at only one end.
collision a host might transmit when it senses the carrier is free. collisions occur when two stations transmit simultaneously. If a collision is detected, each station will wait for a randomly determined interval before retransmitting the data.
CMIP common management information protocol
common management information protocol the OSI-based protocol expected to provide standard management of network devices in general.
computer equipment refers to the hardware that physically handles data of the network
ConsoleOne administrative utility to create and manage objects in NetWare 5.x and later networks.
Container object object in a directory that can hold other objects
context the context points to where you are located in the NDS/eDirectory tree. This serves as a logical pointer to an object, such as a user, printer, or server.
crossover cable refers to a length of network cable that has been wired to provide a connection from one network interface card to another, alleviating the need of an Ethernet hub.
crosstalk the disturbance caused in a circuit by an unwanted transfer of energy from another circuit. Also, interference that occurs when cables are too close to each other, resulting in loss or corruption of data.
cyclic redundancy check a redundancy check in which the check key is generated by a cyclic algorithm. Also, a system checking or error checking performed at both the sending and receiving station after a block check character has been accumulated
OSI Layer 2 data link layer specifies how devices attached to the network gain access to the various computing resources
dedicated server a computer that can perform only server functions
DSSS direct sequence spread spectrum
direct sequence spread spectrum wireless transmission technology where the data being transmitted is spread over multiple frequencies, allowing for higher throughput rates. Operates on the 2.4 Ghz band
Display Filter used to eliminate extraneous data and to focus on specific types of data
distance vector algorithms in which each node maintaings the distance from itself to each possible destination
DoD(Department of Defense) reference model a four-layer architectural model that TCP/IP is based on
domain a logical grouping for file servers within a network, managed as an integrated whole.
domain name space the hierarchical structure identifying domain names
DNS doman name system
doman name system a hierarchical, distributed method of organizing system and network names on the Internet
dotted decimal notation an ip address represented as four octets or bytes, separated by periods. For examples:
DHCP dynamic host configuration protocol
dynamic host configuration protocol a tcp/ip application-layer protocol that provides dynamic address assignment on a network
dynamic router automatically configured and updated router. uses either RIP or OSPF as the routing protocol
e-mail server dedicated server that handles e-mail and other groupware applications exclusively
encapsulating mode the mode in which a bridge packages frames of one format into the format of another
ethernet hub a device that takes the signal transmitted from one computer and propagates it to all the other computers on the network
event viewer a windows admin. tool that might be used to monitor peripheral management. You can also see the extent of errors by using the Event Viewer
explicit trustee rights rights granted directly to an object at any level of the file system in a NetWare network
FDDI fiber distributed data interface
fiber distributed data interface ususe a double fiber ring and runs at 100 Mbps. It is typically found as the backbone connecting buildings on a campus or wider area
FTP file transfer protocol
file transfer protocol used to transfer text and binary files between systems, including dissimilar platforms. If necessary, it will perform a format and type conversion on the file
FireWire(IEEE 1394) an external serial bus standard with speeds of up to 400 Mbps. It is most commonly used to connect peripherals to computers, such as external hard drives, video devices, printers, and so on
Frame in IEEE terminology, the unit of data transferred at the OSI data link layer
FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Wireless transmission technology where data is transmitted on a single frequency at any give time. However, the signal hops from frequency to frequency in a pseudorandom pattern.
full-duplex communication method where both parties can transmit simultaneously. the computer can receive data while it is transmitting and vice versa
gateway the primary linkage between mixed environments, such as PC-based LANs and host environments, such as SNA
Global group a group definition that facilitates permission assignments to local machines or other domains through local group membership of the global group
groupware e-mail packages that provide more functionality than just e-mail. Some examples of popular groupware packages are Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise, and Lotus Notes.
half-duplex communications method where each participant only transmits when the other listens. There is no way for two computers to transmit at the same time.
Hardware loopback test diagnostic test that transmits a signal across a medium while the sending device waits for the return of the signal
Host A computer that is remotely accessible and provides information or services for users on a network.
Hybrid/Partial mesh mesh topologies used for interconnecting only the most important sites with multiple links
iManager web-based admin. utility used to create and manage objects in NetWare 5.x and later networks.
Infrared wireless tech. that allows for wireless connection of devices at a very close range. Line of site technology range= 1 meter speed= 115Kbps. to 4 Mbps.
IRF Inherited Rights Filter
Inherited Rights Filter In NetWare 4.x and up the IRF restricts access privileges to a specific object. It blocks rights that would normally flow down from a parent object. When an IRF has been altered to block rights inheritance, the filter is referred to as a restrictive IRF
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Responsible for assigning and managing internet IP addresses and address classes
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Internet gateway hardware that provides a LAN connection port, and a connection to the internet that typically is shared by all computers on the network. Uses a single IP address.
IPX internetwork packet exchange
internetwork packet exchange used with SPX as the resident protocol in NetWare 4.x and earlier. a router with IPX routing can interconnect LANs so that Novell NetWare clients and servers can communicate
internetworking defined as the technology and devices by which computers can communicate across different types of networks
ipx/spx protocol consists of ipx, which runs at the network layer of the osi model and spx, which runs at the transport layer
layer 2 switch or data switch generally a more modern term for multiport bridge
leaf object a type of NetWare object that does not contain other objects. Examples are user, printer, or server objects
learning bridge listens to each of the attached cable segments and creates a table of addresses originating on each segment.
legacy the term used to define an existing mainframe or minicomputer environment
LATAs local access transport areas
local access transport areas wide area network that links networks, which are located in different local calling areas
local bridge a bridge that has a LAN link directly attached on each side
logical disk counter monitors the activity on logical partitions
MAC address the hardware address of a device connected to a channel, such as the address of a terminal connected to an ethernet
member server a server in a windows domain that is not a domain controller
monitor NetWare server console utility that provides a wealth of server information you can use to gauge server performance and resource utilization
multimeter comes in two varieties, analog and digital. Digital versions feature an audible continuity tester while analog versions do not. Can measure resistance
Name Resolution the process of converting the friendly name to its IP address. Computers need the IP address to converse with another host
NetBIOS Standard programming interface for the development of distributed applications
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface
NetBIOS Extended User Interface a non-routable transport protocol written to the NetBIOS interface
NRM NetWare Remote Manager
NetWare Remote Manager web-based utility that lets you perform NetWare server monitoring and maintenance.
Network adapter the card that makes it possible for a computer to interface with the network. Also known as a Network Interface Card (NIC)_
NAT Network address translation
Network address translation enables translation of private network addresses into valid internet addresses.
NDIS network device interface specification
network device interface specification an industry standard for monolithic protocol networking model developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corporation
Network layer the OSI layer that is responsible for routing, switching, ,and accessing the subnetwork across the entire OSI environment.
network monitor gives administrators the ability to detect and troubleshoot network problems
network neighborhood/network places the focal point for browsing network resources, from a windows 95, 98, nt/2000/xp workstation
NOS network operating system
network operating system the software running at the server, ,which provides the network environment for the server and the clients
nwconfig command a netware 5.x and later utility used at the server console
osi application layer the layer that provides a series of definitions that are used to provide network-wide system management functions
parent partition a partition that is located immediately above the root of another partition
partition root the container closest to the directory tree's root. the partition's name is derived from its partition root
passive hub takes incoming electrical signals on one port and passes them down the cable on its other ports. In this way, all nodes see the signal just as if they were all connected on a physical bus topology
performance monitor gives a graphical representation of windows systems and is used to locate and resolve performance bottlenecks
physical layer the osi layer that provides the means to activate and use physical connections for bit transmission. In plain terms, the physical layer provides the procedures for transferring a single bit across a physical media
PPTP point to point tunneling protocol
point to point tunneling protocol provides secure client connections over the internet
POTS plain old telephone service
plain old telephone service the standard telephone service subscribed to for making voice calls
presentation layer translates data into an appropriate transmission format. One function maintained at this layer is terminal emulation, which helps workstations that use different local data formats to communicate
PDC primary domain controller
primary domain controller windows nt server that stores the master copy of domain security information. It is the controlling system for the domain
private internet/intranet a network that will not be connecting directly to the internet
promiscuous mode makes it possible for a network adapter card to hear all the frames that pass over the network
protected mode the operating mode of the 80286 microprocessor that makes it possible for the OS to use features that protect one application from another, also called protect mode
PDU protocol data units
protocol data units the virtual connections between layers of the osi stack
provisioning a term used by the telecommunication industry to describe the configuration of telephone lines
proxy server another type of firewall, sometimes called an IP proxy. The IP proxy masks the IP address of internal host and represents itself instead
RAS remote access server
remote access server windows service that provides remote access capabilities to computers. a windows machine can be configured to be a RAS server or a RAS client
remote bridge a bridge that links a local network across a wide area segment
repeaters used to extend the physical length of a LAN
replica a physical copy of a partition
replica synchronization the process when changes made to a partition are forwarded to all servers holding replicas of the data in that partition
replication process whereby data directories are dynamically copied between selected file server and transactions are applied to copies of database files
RFC request for comments
request for comments the name of the result and process for creating a standard on the internet. new standards are proposed and published on line as a request for comments
ring topology provides a closed-loop transmission medium. Repeaters at each node connection duplicate the signal. This is done to minimize signal degradation.
router a connection between two networks that specifies message paths and might perform other functions, such as data compression
schema all of the objects and attributes that are available in a directory service directory such as active directory or NDS/eDirecotry
scope the range of valid address
segment the portion of the network on either side of two network transmission devices, such as a router, bridge, or repeater
SPX sequenced packet exchange
sequenced packet exchange a Novell protocol used as the resident protocol in NetWare, along with IPX
SLIP Serial Line IP
serial line IP an internet protocol used to run IP to connect two systems over serial lines such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables. SLIP is now being replaced by PPP
server a computer or a software package that provides services to client software running on other computers on a network. Possible services include file sharing, printer sharing, or communications services
SDU Service data units
Service data units the physical connections between each layer of the OSI stack
service packs hot fixes combines with additional software fixes to form a minor software upgrade
session the duration of the connection between two applications on different systems
session layer OSI layer 5 providing means for dialogue control between end systems
shared folder a data resource in a windows network that has been made available to authorized network clients
share permissions permissions for shared directories. Share permissions can be assigned for directory shares located on a FAT or NTFS partition
STP shielded twisted pair
shielded twisted pair includes a protective sheathing around the copper wire. The twisted pair is wrapped in foil to cut down on outside interference and electromagnetic radiation
SNMP simple network management protocol
simple network management protocol a tcp/ip-based management protocol that might be implemented on routers
static router manually configured and updated router
system log contains error and status messages regarding system devices and services
task manager gives a list of the processes and applications that are currently running and also monitors their performance effectively
the internet a collection of diverse networks, each connecting a range of systems together for a distinct purpose
TDR time domain reflectometer
time domain reflectometer a sophisticated tool used to find a break in the middle of a cable
tone generator a device that emits an audible tone to test primarily for continuity
topology defines how the physical media links the network modes. examples are bus, star, ring and mesh
transceiver provides a connection between one media type and another without changing the channel access method
TCP/IP transmission control protocol / internet protocol
transmission control protocol / internet protocol a protocol that makes communication between the same or different types of computers on a network possible. The internet protocol is stream-oriented and breaks data into packets
transport layer osi layer 4, which is responsible for reliable end-to-end data transfer between end systems
transport protocols manages network communication. they determine how data moving up and down through the communications model should be presented to the next layer.
trust relationships a one-way or two-way logical relationship established between two windows server domains and significant only in a multiple-domain environment
TP twisted pair
twisted pair cabling specification that uses two or more pairs of wire, twisted together and housed in a single protective sheath. Often used in star topologies
UPS uninterrupted power supply
uninterrupted power supply keeps your system from going down unexpectedly due to line power loss
UTP unshielded twisted pair
unshielded twisted pair a set of twisted pairs within a plastic sheath. Common types are category 3,5,5e and 6
upgrading a term used to describe the physical implementation of a new OS in the place of an older one
user manager a windows NT user and group administration utility
user-level security the option of identifying users through a central security provider
VLAN virtual lan
virtual lan features advanced filtering techniques implemented by switches to optimize performance
VPN virtual private network
virtual private network provides secure remote access to your network via the internet
virus a software program that has the ability to reproduce by modifying other programs or duplicating itself
well known ports the ports which an application listens for a request
windows socket or Winsock a standard application interface defining communications between windows and the underlying protocol stack
wireless communication method that enables computers to be connected to each other and peripherals to be connected to each other and peripherals to be connected to computers without the use of cables
WAP wireless access point
wireless access point device to which wireless clients connect to in turn get connected to a private network or the internet
workgroup a logical group of computers characterized by a decentralized security and administration model
workstation described as a personal computer that is connected to a network, which can perform tasks through applications or utilities
xDSL family of technologies that provide speed remote access through regular copper telephone lines or over fiber optic cable
Created by: hornerkyle