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CIT228 Ch 9 - 11

CIT228 Wireless Chapters 9 - 11

TermDefinition
access control Granting or denying approval to use specific resources.
algorithm Procedures based on a mathematical formula; used to encrypt the data.
availability Security actions that ensure that data is accessible to authorized users.
ciphertext Data that has been encrypted.
cleartext Unencrypted data.
confidentiality Security actions that ensure only authorized parties can view the information.
cryptography The science of transforming information into a secure form while it is being transmitted or stored so that unauthorized persons cannot access it.
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) A checksum value that is based on the contents of the text.
decryption The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext.
denial of service (DoS) An attack that attempts to prevent a device from performing its normal functions.
encryption The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext.
evil twin An imposter AP that is set up by an attacker.
information security The tasks of securing information that is in a digital format.
initialization vector (IV) A 24-bit WEP value that changes each time a packet is encrypted.
integrity Security actions that ensure that the information is correct and no unauthorized person or malicious software has altered the data.
integrity check value (ICV) The checksum value generated by WEP.
IV attack An attack that determines the keystream by analyzing two packets that were created from the same IV.
key A mathematical value entered into the algorithm to produce ciphertext.
keystream The output from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG).
keystream attack An attack that determines the keystream by analyzing two packets that were created from the same IV.
man-in-the-middle An attack that makes it appear that the wireless device and the network computers are communicating with each other, when actually they are sending and receiving data with an evil twin AP between them.
Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering Restricting admission to a WLAN based on the client device’s MAC address.
open system authentication The process of a client connecting to a WLAN by sending a request to the AP with the SSID of the network it wants to join.
plaintext Data input into an encryption algorithm.
pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) A WEP mechanism for creating a random number.
RF jamming A DoS attack that floods the RF spectrum with extraneous RF signal “noise” that prevents communications from occurring.
rogue AP An unauthorized AP.
SSID hiding Configuring an AP to prevent the beacon frame from including the SSID
war driving The process of searching for wireless signals from an automobile or on foot using a portable computing device.
weak keys Cryptographic keys that create a repeating pattern.
wired equivalent privacy (WEP) A wireless security mechanism that is intended to guard the confidentiality of information as it is transmitted.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) The block cipher used in IEEE 802.11i/WPA2.
anomaly-based monitoring A method for auditing usage by detecting statistical anomalies.
authentication request A data packet in an IEEE 802.1X network that contains the specific AP that is sending the authentication request and the user name and password.
authenticator A device in an IEEE 802.1X network that accepts or rejects a supplicant.
behavior-based monitoring A method for auditing usage by using the normal processes and actions as the standard.
block cipher An encryption cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
broadcast Network traffic sent to all users on the network.
Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP) The encryption protocol used for 802.11i/WPA2.
dictionary attack dictionary attack An attack that compares encrypted versions of common dictionary words against data captured through wireless transmissions.
dynamic WEP An enhancement to WEP that uses rotating keys.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) A framework for transporting the authentication protocols in an IEEE 802.1X network.
heuristic monitoring A method for auditing usage by using an algorithm to determine if a threat exists.
Hypertext Transport Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS) A security protocol that uses HTTP sent over SSL/TLS.
IEEE 802.11i (also known as robust security network (RSN)) The current wireless security standard ratified by the IEEE in 2004.
IEEE 802.1X A standard originally developed for wired networks that blocks all traffic on a port-by-port basis until the client is authenticated.
integrated sensor (also AP sensor or embedded sensor) A WIDS/WIPS sensor that uses existing APs to monitor the RF.
intrusion system A security management system that compiles information from a computer network or individual computer and then analyzes it to identify security vulnerabilities and attacks.
Kerberos An authentication system developed by the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT) and used to verify the identity of networked users.
Message Integrity Check (MIC) Part of the WPA standard designed to prevent an attacker from conducting active or passive man-in-the-middle attacks.
overlay sensor A WIDS/WIPS sensor that uses separate dedicated sensors for scanning the RF for attacks.
per-packet key Dynamically generating a new key for each packet to preventing collisions.
Per-User Preshared Keys (PPSK) A technology that combines many of the advantages of 802.1X with the ease of use of PSK.
preshared key (PSK) A secret value that is manually entered on both the AP and each wireless device.
Real-Time Location Services (RTLS) Using wireless technologies for asset tracking of wireless equipment.
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) The industry standard with widespread support suitable for high-volume service control applications.
Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) Providing access based on a user’s job function within an organization.
rounds An iteration used in AES encryption.
Secure Shell (SSH) An encrypted alternative to the Telnet protocol that is used to access remote computers.
Secure Shell 2 (SSH2) The current version of the Secure Shell (SSH)
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol developed by Netscape for securely transmitting documents over the Internet.
signature-based monitoring A method for auditing usage by examining network traffic, activity, transactions, or behavior to compare against well-known patterns.
stream cipher An encryption cipher that takes one character and replaces it with another character.
supplicant A device in an IEEE 802.1X network that makes an appeal for access.
temporal key A 128-bit encryption key used in TKIP.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) Part of the WPA standard that adds an additional layer of security while still preserving WEP’s basic functionality.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) A protocol that guarantees privacy and data integrity
unicast Network traffic destined for only one address.
virtual private network (VPN) A technology that uses an unsecured public network as if it were a secure private network.
VPN concentrator A device that aggregates VPN connections.
WEP2 (WEP Version 2) An enhancement to WEP that attempted to overcome WEP’s limitations by adding a longer key value and a different authentication system.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) A temporary security solution developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance in 2003.
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) The Wi-Fi Alliance’s security standard based on IEEE 802.11i.
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) An optional means of configuring security on wireless local area networks designed to help users who have little or no knowledge of security.
wireless intrusion detection system (WIDS) A security management system that constantly monitors the RF for attacks and sounds an alert if one is detected.
wireless intrusion prevention system (WIPS) A security management system that monitors network traffic to immediately react to block a malicious attack.
WPA Enterprise A temporary security solution intended for large enterprises, schools, and government agencies.
WPA2 Enterprise The current Wi-Fi Alliance standard designed for large enterprises, schools, and government agencies.
WPA Personal A temporary security solution designed for individuals or small office/home office settings.
WPA2 Personal The current Wi-Fi Alliance standard designed for individuals or small office/home offices.
access control Granting or denying approval to use specific resources.
algorithm Procedures based on a mathematical formula; used to encrypt the data.
acceptable use policy (AUP) A policy that defines the actions users may perform while accessing systems and networking equipment.
asset An item that has value.
asset management The task of identifying and categorizing assets.
cable lock A lock inserted into the security slot of a portable device and the cable connected to the lock that is secured to a desk or chair.
closed circuit television (CCTV) Using video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific and limited set of receivers for security.
deadbolt lock A door lock that extends a solid metal bar into the door frame for extra security.
Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) The circuitry on which firmware resides.
event log A record of events.
exploiting Taking advantage of a vulnerability.
fencing Securing a restricted area by erecting a barrier.
firmware Software that is embedded into hardware to control the device.
management information base (MIB) The storage area in which SNMP software agents store their data.
password policy A policy that address how passwords are created and managed.
phishing Sending an e-mail or displaying a Web announcement that falsely claims to be from a legitimate sender in an attempt to trick the user into surrendering private information.
Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) An SNMP-based tool that monitors networks using dedicated hardware devices.
RF site tuning Adjustments to a WLAN performed as part of routine maintenance.
risk The likelihood that a threat agent will exploit a vulnerability.
security policy A written document that states how an organization plans to protect the company’s information technology assets.
SNMP management station A computer running SNMP management software.
SNMP trap An alert message generated on a network using SNMP.
social engineering A means of launching an attack or gathering information for an attack by relying on the weaknesses of individuals.
software agent Software used in SNMP to monitor network traffic.
threat A type of action that has the potential to cause harm.
threat agent A person or element that has the power to carry out a threat.)
vulnerability A flaw or weakness that allows a threat agent to bypass security.
vulnerability assessment (impact analysis) A systematic and methodical evaluation of the exposure of assets to attackers, forces of nature, or any other entity that is a potential harm.
wireless policy A policy that specifies the conditions that wireless devices must satisfy in order to connect to the organization’s network.
order to connect to the organization’s network.
Created by: Leisac