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BSC 216 Test #4FINAL

FINAL

QuestionAnswer
Fluid balance in the human body is roughly equivalent to: water balance.
What determines the hydrostatic pressure of a solution? Hydrostatic pressure is the force that fluids exert.
How much urine is lost through obligatory water loss each day? 500 ml
What effect does an increase in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) have on the volume of extracellular fluid (ECF)? ECF increases when antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present.
What is the most abundant extracellular cation? sodium ion
What is a major function of potassium ions in the body? maintaining resting potential of neurons and muscle cells
Through what two systems are carbon dioxide eliminated from the body? respiratory and urinary systems
What leads to respiratory acidosis? hypoventilation
Hyperventilation is the compensation for an acid-base imbalance known as: metabolic acidosis.
In what direction will water move when hypotonic fluids are present in the plasma? Water is pulled from the interstitial fluid and plasma into the cell.
A patient with heart failure is administered an intravenous line containing a solution of hypertonic sodium chloride. Select the patient for whom this solution an appropriate choice. The patient is experiencing overhydration, or hypotonic hydration.
Mrs. Frykholm is experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis, which causes metabolic acidosis. She has experienced damage to her kidneys from diabetes mellitus. Predict how her body compensates to return her blood pH to normal. hyperventilation
Which of the following dissociates into ions when placed in water? electrolyte
Determine the pH value that represents a basic, or alkaline, solution. pH of 10
Water obeys the principle of mass balance. In other words, what is gained by the body must equal what is lost by the body. True
Which of the following accounts for the majority of our total body water? cytosol
What system is responsible for the most common route of water loss from the body? urinary system
The osmotic pressure gradient, or the force of solutes in a solution, tends to push water away from the solution with the higher osmotic pressure, or the more concentrated solution, by osmosis. False
What is the most common cause for hypernatremia? dehydration
Where are the majority of calcium ions stored in the body? osseous tissue
What ion concentration is linked to calcium ion concentration and regulated by vitamin D3 (calcitriol)? phosphate ions
Angiotensin-II restores fluid-homeostasis when dehydration occurs due to inadequate fluid intake. Which of the following is NOT an effect of angiotensin-II? vasodilation
Meiosis is a special type of cell division that produces: gametes.
Which of the following ducts travels through the prostate gland? ejaculatory duct
Which portion of the penis is called the foreskin? prepuce
What stem cell begins the process of spermatogenesis? spermatogonium
What is the maturation process in which spermatids elongate and shed excess cytoplasm? spermiogenesis
The movement of sperm, testicular fluids, and secretions from the prostate gland and seminal vesicle into the urethra is known as: emission
What is the main female gonad? ovary
Where does fertilization usually occur? ampulla of the uterine tube
When are all oogonia formed in females? before birth
Which of the following is the first phase of the ovarian cycle? follicular phase
Enlargement of the prostate gland can constrict the: ejaculatory duct.
If a couple want to have sexual intercourse, and they do not wish to use a behavior method as a form of birth control since they know it comes with high risk. What could be an alternative method? condoms
The reduction in the number of chromosomes to half the normal count occurs during: meiosis.
What shuffles the alleles and causes homologous chromosomes to no longer be identical during meiosis? crossing over
From one original cell, four genetically unique daughter cells, each with 23 nonreplicated chromosomes, are produced at the conclusion of meiosis II of spermatogenesis. True
During an erection, blood from the testicular arteries fills the vascular spaces of the corpus spongiosum of the penis. False
How many spermatids result from one spermatogonium? 4
The round ligaments connect each ovary to the uterus and receive an oocyte during ovulation. False
Which of the following can be fertilized? secondary oocyte
Assuming a 28-day ovarian cycle, on what day should ovulation occur? day 14
Which portion of the uterus is shed during menstruation? stratum functionalis of the endometrium
Which of the following is NOT a prenatal period? infancy
The fusion of a sperm cell and secondary oocyte is known as: fertilization.
The 16-cell stage is known as the: morula.
In humans, from which extraembryonic membrane will the first blood cells arise? yolk sac
Which of the following is the inner germ layer? endoderm
What is the first major event of organogenesis? neurulation
By what week of prenatal development will the placenta be established? week 12
Approximately how many days after fertilization is a fetus considered full-term and ready to be born? 266 days
If two alleles code for the same trait (such as blond hair), they are said to be: homozygous.
A birth defect known as spina bifida results from the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube. Which germ layer is affected? ectoderm
Predict the possible blood types, or phenotypes, of offspring in which the father has blood type O and the mother has blood type AB. The possible blood types of the offspring are phenotypes A or B only.
The organ systems rudimentarily form during the: embryonic period.
Which of the following implants in, or attaches to, the endometrium of the uterus? blastocyst
The embryonic period of prenatal development occurs from week 3 until week 8. True
Which part of the embryo contributes to the fetal portion of the placenta? trophoblast
Which of the following is NOT a function of amniotic fluid? provides nutrition for the developing embryo
Sperm entry into the secondary oocyte triggers the acrosomal reaction. False
What connects the placenta to the fetus? umbilical cord
Which of the following vascular shunts connects the fetal left and right atria? foramen ovale
The placenta, a temporary organ that is shed after the infant is born, is the site of exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the mother and fetus. True
The initial stimulus for labor comes from the: fetus.
Parturition is also known as: childbirth
A pregnant woman typically needs about 300 extra calories each day to support both herself and the fetus. True
What is the neonatal period? the first four weeks of life
Created by: 1246825635331130