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Computers Chapter 10


Operational database used to modify, collect and maintain data on a daily basis
Analytical database used to collect data that will be used for spotting trends that offer insights for tactical and strategic business decisions
What analytical databases do find relationships and patterns using data mining make predictions using predictive examine multiple factors using OLAP
Data archive process of moving data that is no longer actively used to separate data storage device for long-term retention. Consist of older data that is still important and necessary for future reference as well as data for regulatory compliance
Executive dashboard provided by software such as iDashboards which uses tools for visually displaying query results
Data mining analysis steps of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process or KDD. Term is a misonomer because the goal is the extraction of patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data(not extraction of data itself)
Data warehouse known as an enterprise data warehouse- is used for reporting and data analysis; they are the central repositories of integrated data from one or mores sources
Unstructured file refers to information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner
Structured file uses uniform format to store data for each person or thing in the file
Database model underlying structure of a database
flat file simplest models for storing data, consist of single, 2D table of data
field contains the smallest unit of meaningfull information; it is the basic building block for structured file or database
record refers to a collection of data fields
record type template for a record
record occurrence actual content of data that is stored in the database
relationship association between data that's sorted in different record types
hierarchical databases data model in which data is organized into a tree-like structure; stored as records which are connected to one another through links
graph database offers an alternative way to track relationships; structure resembles sociograms with their interlinked nodes
relational database stores data in a collection of related tables
table sequence of records, similar to a flat file
data dependence term that refers to data and program modules being so tightly interrelated that they become difficult to modify
data independence entails separating data from the programs that manipulate it
single level sort uses only one field to arrange records
multi-level sort arranges information by more than one field
DBMS (database management system) refers to software that manages data stored in a database;
DBMS: Filemaker Pro and Microsoft Access easy-to use DBMS that are a good fit for small businesses and individuals
DBMS: Modern work with many kinds of data including text, numbers, images, PDFs and audio files, handle how to most efficiently arrange data and require security features
serializability major correctedess criterion for concurrent transactions executions. It is considered the highest level of isolation between transactions and plays an essential role in concurrency control. It is supported in all general purpose database systems
Database structure refers to the arrangement of fields, tables and relationships in a database
Computed field calculation that a DBMS performs, similar to the way a spreadsheet computes a formula
Primary key unique identifier for each record (is; driver license number). A relational database must ALWAYS have one and ONLY ONE
Case sensitive database column and table names in a SQL server database can be stored in uppercare letters, lowercare letter or a combination of both; can be case sensitive or case insensitive
Field format template that adds the correct formatting as data is entered
field validation rule specification that the database designer sets up to filter data entered into a particular field
lookup routine validates a field entry by checking data in an in-house or third-party database
data type specifies the way data is represented on physical storage media and RAM
Data type: real used for fields that contain numbers with decimal places
Data type: integer used for fields that contain whole numbers
Data type: date stores data in a format that allows them to be manipuated
Normalization helps database designers create a database structure that minimizes storage space and increases processing efficiency
data redundancy amount of data that is duplicated in a database
physical sort order order in which data are arranged on storage devices
sort key column of data used as the basis for rearranging data
database index contains a list of keys and each key provides a pointer to the data that contains the rest of the fields related to that key
report generator which is a software tool for specifying the content and format for a database report
report template contains the outline or general specifications for a report
big data refers to the huge collections of data that are difficult to process, analyze and manage using conventional database tools
3rd platform inter-dependencies between mobile computing, social media, cloud computing and information/analytics (big data) and possibly the internet of things
NoSQL used to refer to a group of technologies for managing databases that do not adhere to the relational model and standard SQL query language; effective for building and managing non-relational databases
scale up increase something in size or number
scale out add more nodes to(or remove nodes) from a system such as adding a new computer to a distributed software application. Example: scaling out from one Web server system to three
Dynamic scaling technique in computer architecture whereby the frequency of a microprocessor can be automatically adjusted "on the fly" either to conserve power or to reduce the amount of heat generated by the chip
schema blueprint for its structure; rows, columns and tables of a database
schema-less database allowing data structures such as fields to be added
key-value data model each data item has a key that is unique identifier similar to a relational database key such as customer ID
column-oriented data model stored data in columns rather than in rows so it works well in situations where the focus is on analysis of chunks of data
hadoop open-source software framework for storing data and running applications on clusters of commodity hardware; provides massive storage for any kind of data, enormous processing power and the abiltiy to handle virtually limitless concurrent tasks or jobs
Mapreduce programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets with a parallel distributed algorithm on a cluster
Created by: udon