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Computers Chapter 8


Digital audio built in microphone and audio software; record sound samples collected at periodic intervals and stored as numeric data in an audio file
Analog to digital converter sound waves samples many times per second by this
Digital to analog converter converter transforms bits to sound waves
sampling rate number of times per second that a sound is measured during the recording process where higher rates increase the quality of sound
Audio format: AAC very good sound quality based on MPEG-4; files can be copy-protected
Audio format: MP3 good sound quality that can be streamed over the Web; may need a standalone player or browser plugin, stored in compressed format
Audio format: MAV Good sound quality supported in browsers without a plugin; stored in raw uncompressed format
Audio format: WMA Very good sound quality in this compressed format which files can be copy protected
Audio player o Small standalone software application or mobile app that offers tools for listening to digital audio and managing playlists, typically included with your computer’s OS (operating system)
Audio plugin o Software that works in conjunction with your computer’s browser to manage and play audio from a Web page
Live Stream sends media from a server to your local device; webcasting- cannot be paused, stored or rewound
On-demand stream o Stream sends the media to your local device, where it is stored temporarily, or “buffered” until there is enough data to begin playback o You can fast forward to any point in the stream without waiting for the file to download
Digital audio extraction "ripping"; importing tracks from CD or DVD to yours
MIDI specifies a standard way to store music data for synthesizers, electronic MIDI instruments, and computers o instructions that specify the pitch of a note, the point at which the note begins, the volume of the note, etc.
Speech synthesis machines produce sound that resembles spoken word
Speech recognition ability of a machine to understand spoken words
Text-to-speech software analyzes the sounds of your voice and converts each word into groups of phonemes then compares the groups to the words in a digital dictionary to find a match, when found, the software can display the word on the screen or use it to carry out a command
BMP raster graphics, image file format used to store bitmap digital devices, independently of the display device
JPEG format for compressing image files
GIF lossless format for image files that supports both animated and static images
PNG file format for image compression that in time i expected to replace the GIF
Image compression any technique that recodes the data in an image file so that it contains fewer bits
Vector o The first graphics that appeared on computer screens were not photos, but simple shapes consisting of lines and curves
Vector graphic o consists of a set of instructions for creating a picture o include standard shapes such as circles and rectangles
Vector vs Bitmap Resize better than bitmaps o Require less storage space o Not as realistic as bitmap images o Editing an object is easier than in bitmap o used for line art, logos, simple illustrations, infographic elements, and diagrams
3D graphics o based on vectors stored as a set of instructions describing the coordinates for lines and shapes in a three-dimensional space
Wireframe vectors from a wireframe that works like the framework for a tent
Rendering process of covering the wireframe surface with color and texture
ray tracing technique for adding light and shadows to a 3D image
Frame each bitmap image
frame rate number of frames that are displayed per second
interlace scan o contrasting scanning technique that produces an image by drawing every other line, then going back and filling in the in-between lines
 o Digital video for computers typically uses progressive scanning; digital television uses interlaced scanning
CODEC o the software that compresses a video stream when a video is stored, and decompresses the file when the video is played
Container formats hold the compressed video stream and an audio stream
Created by: udon