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Integumentary System

Layers of the epidermis from top to bottom? Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale ("Come Let's Get Sun Burned")
Which layer of the epidermis produces a waxy substance that helps coat and protect our skin? Stratum Granulosum (lamellar granules produce the waxy substance)
Which layer of the epidermis is only found in the thick skin of hands and feet? Stratum Lucidum
In which layer of the epidermis do the keratinocytes begin to die off due to lack of nutrients? Stratum Granulosum
In which layer of the epidermis are you most likely to find Langerhans cells in addition to spiny keratinocytes? Stratum Spinosum
In which layer of the epidermis do you find stem cells that reproduce to form all other cells of the epidermis in addition to melanocytes and Merkel cells? Stratum Basale
What is the key function of Merkel cells? Sensing light touch
What is the key function of Langerhans cells? Detecting and fighting pathogens
What is the key function of melanocytes? To produce melanin, which serves to protect the skin from UV radiation and sunburn
Which type of cell makes up the vast majority of all cells in the epidermis? Keratinocytes
What are some of the key functions of the dermis? Gives skin both strength and elasticity. Used to feel touch, pain, and temperature.
Arrector pili muscles are found in the dermis. What do they do? These are small muscles attached to hair follicles. When they contract, they cause hair to stand straight up and create goosebumps. When hair stands straight up, it helps trap heat close to the surface of the skin to warm the body.
Sebaceous glands are also found in the dermis. What is their function? These secrete sebum, a waxy substance that helps lubricate hair and skin. They are directly attached to hair follicles.
What is the difference between the hair follicle and the hair root (both of which are found in the dermis)? A hair follicle helps produce hair. The hair root is the part of the hair that is embedded in the hair follicle. The very end of the hair root is the hair bulb (the white part your see if you rip it out).
Pacinian corpuscles are found in the dermis. What is their function? They are a mechanoreceptor, also known as a nerve ending, that can sense vibrations and pressure.
Where does the blood supply stop in the skin? The blood supply travels through the hypodermis to the dermis, but does not reach the epidermis. This affects the ability of cells to live in the top three layers of the epidermis.
What are some key functions of the hypodermis? Serves as the flexible connection between the skin and the underlying muscles and bones due to its areolar connective tissue. It also has a layer of fatty adipose tissue that stores energy in the form of triglycerides and helps to insulate the body.
What are the three types of skin cancer? Basal Cell, Squamous Cell, & Melanoma
Which cells in the skin are affected by basal cell carcinomas? The basal cells found in the Stratum Basale of the epidermis.
Which cells in the skin are affected by squamous cell carcinomas? The keratinocytes in the upper layers of the epidermis.
Which cells in the skin are affected by melanomas? The melanocytes in the Stratum Basale of the epidermis.
Why are basal cell carcinomas most common in lighter-skinned individuals? They are caused by UV-B radiation (the type that burns skin). People with lighter skin are more prone to the destructive UV radiation due to the lower levels of melanin.
Why are melanomas the most deadly form of skin cancer? They are able to cross from the epidermis to the dermis, which gives the cancer access to a blood supply. If cancer has access to nutrients and oxygen, it can thrive and then metastasize.
What are the key differences between UV-A and UV-B radiation? UV-A radiation ages the skin while UV-B radiation burns the skin. UV-A has a lower frequency (longer wavelength) and 95% gets through the ozone layer. UV-B has a higher frequency (shorter wavelength) and 5% gets through the ozone layer.
Why is UV-C so dangerous? It is a higher frequency of light, essentially as dangerous as x-rays.
How can you calculate how long your sunscreen will protect you? Take the SPF (Sun Protection Factor) and multiply by 10 minutes for light to fair skin, 15 minutes for average skin, and 20 minutes for tanned to dark skin.
Explain the optimal method for applying sunscreen. Split your body into approximately 11 equivalent segments. Each segment should receive two fingers' worth of sunscreen. If you only apply one finger's worth of sunscreen, you only receive 1/3 of the estimated length of protection.
How can you tell if a mole is cancerous? ABCDE. Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolving
How likely is it that any given person will develop skin cancer in their lifetime? 1 in 5 (20%)
How many cancers diagnosed are skin cancers? 1 in 3 (33%)
How can you tell that a molecule is a good absorber of UV radiation? Double bonds that skip a bond in between each one.
Describe the distribution of tactile receptors across the surface of your skin in different regions of the body. Where are they most dense? Where are they least dense? Why? They will be the most dense in areas that need to be extra sensitive to touch (hands, feet, lips, cheeks, and areas needed for reproduction). They will be the least dense in areas that don't need to sense very much (back of neck, thighs, upper arms).
Why does the skin swell and turn red in people with dermatographia? They suffer from an allergic reaction to external stimuli. There is an overproduction of histamine in the area affected as part of an inflammatory response.
How can we ensure a tattoo is actually permanent? The ink must be injected into the dermis (cells are not regularly replaced by shedding).
Do you know the causes, symptoms, and treatments for acne, athlete's foot, eczema, and warts? Use your group sharing summary sheet to review these topics.
Can you describe what it's like to live with harlequin ichthyosis and epidermolysis bullosa? The symptoms and treatments? Review your movie sheet questions.
What are the most important functions of the skin? Provides a protective barrier. Prevents loss of moisture. Reduces harmful effects of UV radiation. Acts as a sensory organ (touch, detects temperature). Helps regulate temperature. An immune organ to detect infections etc. Production of vitamin D.
Created by: msgura



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