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CommDis2 SLP405

Cerebral Palsy bkgd -Onset before age 3-5 (TBI after). -Non-progressive, but changes throughout lifetime. -Brain damage, not cranial/spinal nerves. -Dysarthria (30-80%), sometimes apraxia.
CP prevalence -Most common childhood handicap. -2 to 3 per 1,000 live births. (400k) -
CP etiologies PRENATAL- Intrauterine infection, stroke, toxemia, placental abruption. PERINATAL- Hypoxia, kernicterus, trauma POSTNATAL- Infection, trauma, hydrocephalus. Pre and perinatal problems signaled by neonatal encephalopathy
CP types (3) Spastic, ataxic, dyskinetic (athetoid & choreic – basal ganglia)
Spastic CP characteristics (5) -Increased tone. -Hyperactivity of stretch reflexes (clasp-knife). -Difficult passive movement. -Rigidity. -Clonus: rapid muscular contraction and relaxation. -Babinski’s sign: big toe up.
Spastic CP evolution -low tone at first (or normal). -first noticed at 3-6 mos. .-spasticity develops later
Spastic CP outlook (3) -Hemiplegia (L or R): most learn to walk, 1/2 employed. -Diplegia (upper or lower): 1/3 employed. -Quadriplegic: 1/4 need total care.
Ataxic CP characteristics Low birth tone. Later wide stance, ataxic gait. -Possible perceptual deficits. -Poor orientation of body in space. Incoordination, action tremor, dysmetria.
Athetoid CP (Dyskinetic) -Hypotonic at first then hyperkinetic, choreic, or athetoid symptoms appear (choreoathetosis). -Tonic neck reflexes & snakey movements. -Swallowing and dysarthria probs common. -Often ave. IQ.
CP associated problems (6) -Reduced cognition. -Behavior problems. -Seizures. -Vision. -Speech and language. -Hearing.
Speech subsystems affected by CP Respiration, phonation, resonance, articulation
CP-Respiration -Normal resting tidal volume. -Higher residual volume. -Reduced abdominal strength. -poor valve coordination 1.less available insp. vol. that, 2. is used up too quickly for phonation.
CP-Phonation Insufficient driving pressure. Low air volume requires greater effort for speech.
CP-Articulation/Resonance Extended non-speech postures interfere.
Created by: ashea01