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biomechanics AT

Stack #218520

QuestionAnswer
5 Types of loads that stress bones Compression, Tension, Shearing, Torsion, Bending
What are the 7 types of Diarthrodial Joints gliding, hinge, pivot, condylar, ellipsoid, saddle, ball and socket
Gliding Joint(Ex) Carpals/Tarsals (Bones glide over each other. Do not rotate around an axis)
Hinge Joint IP Joints in hand/foot. Elbow(ulnohumeral)
Pivot Joint radioulnar joint(supiantion/pronation)/ alantoaxial articulation
Condlylar joint Knee/TMJ (allow for flex/ext with some rota.)
Ellipsoid joint MCP Joint (movement in flex/ext/abd/ab)
Saddle Joint ONLY found in MCP of thumb
Ball and Socket Shoulder/ HIP
Other 2 classifications on joints and what they do Synarthroidal(skull sutures) Allow for little or know movement. Amphiarthroidal(epiphyseal plates) hold bones together
Synergist/Neutrilizer muscle Muscle that contracts to eliminate undesired movement of a joint
What are the two types of muscle fiber arrangements. which one produces more force Fusiform/Penniform(more force production)
When is maximum muscle tension-length achieved when contracted just beyond resting length
What is does a muscle spindle do? d
what does the Golgi Tendon Organ do? Monitors force or tension a muscle produces
what is the stretch reflex? GTO overrides muscle spindle and causes it to relax
When are the Quads/Hamstrings most active during running gait? Foot Strike/Mid-support/Toe-off
What are the 5 phases of the running/walking gait? Foot-Strike,Mid-support/Toe-off/forward swing/Deceleration
What is the typical Q-Angle for male/female M=10-14, F=15-17
Rear Foot Valgus Causes foot to be pronated and prevents supination. Creates a hypermobile midtarsal joint and unstable first metatarsal
First Class Lever Force and resistance are on opposite sides of the axis.
Second Class Lever Force and resistance are on the same side of the axis.
Third Class Lever Force and Resistance are on the same side of the axis, but force acts between the axis and resistance.
Rearfoot Varus Causes rigid rearfoot
Forefoot Valgus During Gait, the 1st MT strikes prematurely causing eversion and supination of the forefoot
Forefoot Valgus during gait there is an increase in pronation as the 1st MT has to travel farther before contacting the ground
Sagittal Plane Bisects body into right and left halves. Movements occur around mediolateral axis (somersaults, handspring)
Frontal Plane Bisects body into front and back halves. Movementt occurs around anteroposterior axis.
Transverse/Horizontal Plane Bisects body into upper and lower halves. Movement occurs around longitudinal axis. (spinning veritcally in the air/throwing shot put)involves rotation.
Created by: mwater1