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Neurophysio

neurophys questions for chiropractic board exam

QuestionAnswer
Neuron with resting membrane potential more negative... Inhibited or hyperpolarized
Myelinated Neurons greater conduction velocity
Parasypathetic nervous system activates what receptors in effector organs? Muscarinic Receptors
What is the most common neurotransmitter released from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers? Acetylcholine
What receptor is found at the synapse between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? Nicotinic Receptors
What type of effect can acetylcholine have? Inhibitory or excitatory depending on the type of receptor activated
What is a rapid, but transient change in membrane potential? Action potential
What type of channels do action potentials require? Sodium and potassium voltage-gated ion channels.
Where do sodium and potassium voltage-gated ion channels occur? At regions of the cell membrane that are electrically excitable.
What is threshold? The point at which voltage-gated channels will open.
Graded response is... subthreshold response
Examples of a graded response. receptor (generator) potentials, pacemaker potentials, postsynaptic membrane potentials, end-plate potentials
When a graded potential reaches threshold... action potential is generated.
Variable changes in magnitude of the potential... graded potential
Decrease in magnitude as they move along the cell membrane but can function as signals over a very short distance... graded potential
Graded potential caused by a stimulus... receptor potential
Sensory receptors respond to stimuli from... Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors (pain), chemoreceptors, electromagnetic (vision) receptors.
What is the pathway of a graded potential? graded potential--> Threshold--> Action Potential generated--> Sensory input transmitted to spinal cord and brain.
Why are action potentials propagated with out degradation? It is constantly regenerated all along the membrane.
What organ recieves preganglionic sympathetic fibers? Medulla of the adrenal glands.
What do chromaffin cells of the medulla of the adrenal glands secrete? catecholamines
What are catecholamines? Norepinephrine and epinephrine
What part of the brain is involved in the arousal from a deep sleep? Reticular Formation
What is the reticular formation responsible for? regulating periods of unconsciousness and consciousness.
What is the collection of nerve endings around a hair follicle that allows for sensation of the hair being touched called? Peritricial Plexus
What neurotransmitter is associated with the motor end-plate? Acetylcholine
Motor end-plate is associated with? Skeletal muscles
What is the neurotransmitter in the basal ganglion? dopamine
What is the condition of impaired neurotransmitter reception at the motor end-plate Myasthenia Gravis
Responsible for carrying vibration sense, proprioception and complex touch to the upper extremity? Fasciculus Cuneatus
Motor Tract from the cerebellu
Neuron with resting membrane potential more negative... Inhibited or hyperpolarized
Myelinated Neurons greater conduction velocity
Parasypathetic nervous system activates what receptors in effector organs? Muscarinic Receptors
What is the most common neurotransmitter released from parasympathetic postganglionic fibers? Acetylcholine
What receptor is found at the synapse between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? Nicotinic Receptors
What type of effect can acetylcholine have? Inhibitory or excitatory depending on the type of receptor activated
What is a rapid, but transient change in membrane potential? Action potential
What type of channels do action potentials require? Sodium and potassium voltage-gated ion channels.
Where do sodium and potassium voltage-gated ion channels occur? At regions of the cell membrane that are electrically excitable.
What is threshold? The point at which voltage-gated channels will open.
Graded response is... subthreshold response
Examples of a graded response. receptor (generator) potentials, pacemaker potentials, postsynaptic membrane potentials, end-plate potentials
When a graded potential reaches threshold... action potential is generated.
Variable changes in magnitude of the potential... graded potential
Decrease in magnitude as they move along the cell membrane but can function as signals over a very short distance... graded potential
Graded potential caused by a stimulus... receptor potential
Sensory receptors respond to stimuli from... Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors (pain), chemoreceptors, electromagnetic (vision) receptors.
What is the pathway of a graded potential? graded potential--> Threshold--> Action Potential generated--> Sensory input transmitted to spinal cord and brain.
Why are action potentials propagated with out degradation? It is constantly regenerated all along the membrane.
What organ recieves preganglionic sympathetic fibers? Medulla of the adrenal glands.
What do chromaffin cells of the medulla of the adrenal glands secrete? catecholamines
What are catecholamines? Norepinephrine and epinephrine
What part of the brain is involved in the arousal from a deep sleep? Reticular Formation
What is the reticular formation responsible for? regulating periods of unconsciousness and consciousness.
What is the collection of nerve endings around a hair follicle that allows for sensation of the hair being touched called? Peritricial Plexus
What neurotransmitter is associated with the motor end-plate? Acetylcholine
Motor end-plate is associated with? Skeletal muscles
What is the neurotransmitter in the basal ganglion? dopamine
What is the condition of impaired neurotransmitter reception at the motor end-plate Myasthenia Gravis
Responsible for carrying vibration sense, proprioception and complex touch to the upper extremity? Fasciculus Cuneatus
Motor Tract from the cerebellum? rubrospinal tract
Responsible for carrying vibration, proprioception and complex touch for the lower extremity? Fasciculus Gracilus
Carries pain and temperature? anterior spinothalamic tract
Increased permeability to chloride causes an influx of cholride into the cell resulting in... hyperpolarization
Mydriasis, pupil dialation is what type of autonomic response? sympathetic
Peristalsis, erection and salivation are what type of autonomic response? parasympathetic
Rapid influx of sodium ions into a cell that is physiologically excitable? depolarization
Two types of depolarization. Action potential and EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
Occurs only if threshold is achieved? action potential
Associated with influx of chloride ions or efflux of potassium ions? hyperpolarization
Characterized by reduced sodium permeablility refractory period
sodium influx depolarization
potassium efflux repolarization or hyperpolarization
calcium influx release of neurotransmitter vesicles from the terminal bouton of the axon
Resting membrane potential membrane is polarized
neurotransmitter responsible for the conversion of chemical energy into bioelectrical energy at the motor end plate of skeletal muscle? acetylcholine
neurotransmitter of autonomic nervous system norepinephrine
serve as neurotransmitters in the CNS GABA and Histamine
refers to peak voltage of an action potential amplitude
Myelination and fiber diameter increase? speed of propagation
Governed by the concentration of intracellular and extracellular ions Amplitude
What causes the repolarization phase of an action potential? influence of potassium channels
Inhibitory neurotransmitter of the CNS GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Excitatory Neurotransmitters Epinephrine, Glutamate, Norepinephrine
What do drugs that block a voltage-gated Na channel in nerves do? Won't allow action potential to occur
What is necessary for depolarization to happen? opening of voltage-gated sodium channels
Nernst potential for sodium positive
Nernst potential for potassium negative
By preventing sodium entry in cell membrane, no additional action potentials can occur. What is this phase called? Absolute refractory period
Housekeeping cells of the CNS microglial cells
Due to effects of a single synapse firing a rapid succession... temporal summation
Neuron with resting membrane potential that is more negative... inhibited or hyperpolarized
myelinated neurons greater conduction velocity
Created by: 827753675