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6.AR-Aud Stim in Com

Aural Rehab SLP401

TermDefinition
Auditory training maximize residual hearing
Communication Factors (5) 1.Source/Speaker 2.Message 3.Feedback 4.Environment 5.Receiver/Listener Interruption at any level will affect the communication.
Basic perception Perceptual skills develop in the weeks following birth. Auditory system is fully developed by 5 months gestation. There are 340,000 distinguishable tones within the audible range of hearing.
Human Ear Frequency Range 20 to 20,000 Hz
Human Ear Intensity Range 0 to 130 or 140 dB SPL
Parameters of speech acoustics (3) 1.Intensity Parameters 2.Frequency Parameters 3.Temporal Parameters
Vowel parameters Higher intensity: they are the power of speech. Low/mid frequencies, several formants. Longer duration.
Consonant parameters Lower intensity. Higher frequency. Shorter duration. Important to speech intelligibility. (Place, voice, manner)
Intensity parameters 25 to 65 dB HL (whisper to shout). 28 to 56 dB difference from softest consonant to loudest vowel.
Frequency parameters Acoustical energy from 50 to 10,000 Hz (greatest below 1000 Hz).
Suprasegmentals Intonation. Rhythm. Stress. Pitch. Not confined to any single segment or phonetic element - superimposed throughout.
Temporal parameters Duration of speech sounds: 20 - 400 ms
Transitional cues Intensity, frequency, and duration differ in co-articulation. E.g., – prolonged vowel duration contributes to our perception of voicing in cons that follows.
Speech perception and comprehension Reception is only the first step. Mere reception of speech elements does not ensure proper perception of the message.
Listening continuum expanded (7) 1.Detection 2.Discrimination 3.Identification 4.Attention* 5.Memory* 6.Closure* 7.Comprehension
Speech perception and hearing loss (3) 1.Physical properties 2.Redundancy 3.Noise
Physical properties - hearing If hearing thresholds do not intersect with frequency and intensity parameters of speech sounds, there is a physical limit on ability to understand speech.
Redundancy Redundancy = predictability. Themes that match the speaking context help provide redundancy ( talking about football at a football game.)
Constraints & redundancy Syntactic, semantic, and situational constraints provide predictability.
Speaker constraints (3) 1.Compliance with the rules of the language. 2.Use of appropriate articulation, intonation, stress. 3.Size and appropriateness of vocabulary.
Message constraints (4) 1.Number of syllables, words, etc. 2.Amount of context. 3.Frequencies of the speech signal. 4.Intensity of the speech signal.
Environmental constraints (3) 1.Noise. 2.Reverberation. 3.Number of situational cues present that are related to the message
Listener constraints (4) 1.Familiarity with rules of the language. 2.Familiarity with message vocabulary. 3.Knowledge of the topic. 4.Hearing abilities.
Noise ...reduces the amount of information present for the listener to use.
Noise within speaker (3) Poor syntax. Abnormal articulation. Improper stress or inflection.
Noise within environment (4) 1) Abnormal lighting. 2) Competing or distracting visual stimuli. 3) Competing or distracting auditory stimuli. 4) Reverberation.
Noise within listener 1) Lack of familiarity with the rules of the language. 2) Inability to identify the topic of the message. 3) Poor listening skills.
Created by: ashea01