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Earth Science

Earth Science & Geology

QuestionAnswer
Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase. Most of the Earth's crust consist of these rocks. Metamorphic Rock (Examples of metamorphic rocks include anthracite, quartzite, marble, slate, granulite, gneiss and schist.)
Rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment, especially sediment transported by water (rivers, lakes, and oceans), ice ( glaciers ), and wind. Sedimentary rock (Examples: Limestone, sandstone, breccia, conglomerate, siltstone and shale)
Formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous Rock (Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, diorite, gabbro and andesite.)
Types of igneous rocks that form when magma reaches the Earth's surface a volcano and cools quickly. Extrusive Igneous Rocks (Examples include basalt, rhyolite, andesite, and obsidian.)
Types of igneous rocks that form when magma cools slowly below the Earth's surface Intrusive Igneous Rocks (Examples of intrusive igneous rocks are diorite, gabbro, granite, pegmatite, and peridotite.)
A subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time. Geologic Era
Number of Geologic Eras Three ( 1. Paleozoic Era 2. Mesozoic Era 3. Cenozoic Era)
This era began 542 million years ago and lasted about 291 million years. The name was compounded from Greek palaios (old) and zoön (animal). Paleozoic Era (540 million years ago to 250 million years ago)
This era began 251 million years ago and lasted about 186 million years. The name was compounded from Greek mesos (middle) and zoön (animal). Popular name: Age of Reptiles. Mesozoic Era (225 millions years ago to 65 million years ago)
This era began 66 million years ago and includes the geological present. The name was compounded from Greek kainos (new) and zoön (animal). Popular name: Age of Mammal Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago to the present)
Periods in the Paleozoic Era Six (1. Cambrian 2. Ordovician 3. Silurian 4. Devonian 5. Carboniferous 6. Permian)
Periods in the Mesozoic Era Three (1. Triassic 2. Jurassic 3. Cretaceous)
Periods in the Cenozoic Era Three (1. Paleogene 2. Neogene 3. Quaternary)
Name given to the more southerly of two supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed from approximately 300 to 180 million years ago Gondwanaland (also Gondwana)
Name give the more northerly of two supercontinents that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent Laurasia
A supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 300 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago. Pangaea
The movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, Continental Drift
German scientist who originated the continental drift theory Alfred Wegener
The vast global ancestral Pacific ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea, during the late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic eras Panthalassa
The weak or "soft" zone in the upper mantle just below the lithosphere , involved in plate movement and isostatic adjustments. Asthenosphere
The rigid outer shell of the Earth. It includes the crust and uppermost mantle and is on the order of 100 km in thickness. Lithosphere
3 layers of the mantle Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere
A zone in the Earth between 400 and 670 km below the surface separating the upper mantle from the lower mantle. Mesosphere
A naturally occurring inorganic solid that has a well-defined chemical composition and in which atoms are arranged in an ordered fashion. Mineral
The ten-point scale of mineral hardness , keyed arbitrarily to the minerals talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, and diamond. Mohs Scale or Mohs Hardness Scale
A seismic body wave that involves particle motion, alternating compression and expansion, in the direction of wave propagation. It is the fastest seismic wave. P-Wave (Primary Wave)
Heat transport without the intervention of matter, as in the transport of heat from the Sun to the Earth. Radiation
Heat transport by moving particles, and the thermal energy that they carry, to a new location. Convection
Heat transport by direct transfer of energy from one particle to another, without moving the particle to a new location. Conduction
A vent in the surface of the Earth, from which lava, ash, and gases erupt, forming a structure that is roughly conical. Volcano
Molten rock, containing dissolved gases and suspended solid particles. Magma
Magma at the earth's surface Lava
Roughly spherical, hollow or partially hollow accumulation of mineral matter. Crystals, often perfectly formed, usually quartz although calcite and dolomite and – more rarely – other minerals. Geode
The science that deals with the study of the planet Earth–the materials of which it is made, the processes that act to change these materials from one form to another, and the history recorded by these materials Geology
Innermost zone of Earth. Consists of two parts, an outer liquid section and an inner solid section, both chiefly of iron and nickel with about 10 percent lighter elements. It is surrounded by the mantle. Core
It is liquid, about 1,700 km thick, and separated from the inner, solid core by a transition zone about 565 km thick. Outer Core
The solid innermost part of the core with a diameter of a little over 1,200 km. Inner Core
Flow in which fluid moves at high speed in jet-like surges as does water in free fall over a falls. Jet Flow
A seismic body wave that involves particle motion from side to side, perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. S-Wave
Depression in ground surface caused by collapse into a cave below. Sinkhole
An icicle-shaped accumulation of dripstone hanging from cave roof. stalactite
A post of dripstone growing up from a cave floor. stalagmite
Pillar formed as a stalactite and stalagmite meet. column
An aggregate of one or more minerals in varying proportions. Rock
A volcano which is composed of lava flows and pyroclastic material and which is steep-sided and very tall is known as composite cone
In geological studies, a dome shaped intrusion is called a laccolith
There is a specific term used by geologists to describe rock weathering in which shells or plates are broken away from a rock leaving it rounded in appearance exfoliation
4 characteristics of a mineral Is it non-living? Is it a solid? Is it formed in nature? Does it have a crystal structure?
the earth realm where life occurs biosphere
the entire solid earth realm and is composed of mineral matter lithosphere
the name of the atmosphere layer of upwardly diminishing temperature situated above the stratosphere and topped by the mesopause mesosphere
term used to measure the intensity of solar radiation and is equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter per minute langley
What gas makes up the majority of our atmosphere? nitrogen
The tanning rays of the sun are called ultraviolet rays
Global climate change is being attributed to the atmospheric increase in what two gases produced by human activities methane and carbon dioxide
The ozone layer is located in which region of the atmosphere stratosphere
What is another name for the 180th meridian international date line
What form of runoff is water that flows down a slope within the upper layers of the soil rather than on top of them? interflow
The largest single component, by weight, in the average American landfill is newspapers
North American Indians used this mineral of volcanic origin to make tips for arrows obsidian
Which animal is the center of the timber-harvest controversy in the Pacific Northwest northern spotted owl
The core of the earth is thought to be composed of what two elements iron and nickel
After what geophysical occurrence might you see Bishop's Ring around the sun volcanic eruption
Which stone, usually green, was used for Chinese, Aztec and Mayacarvings jade
This minerals is a source of lead galena
the mineral name for ordinary salt halite
Rocks are classified depending upon how they are formed. In which class would marble be found metamorphic
The principal mineral in most sand beaches is quartz
What type of map projection is most appropriate for navigation charts? mercator
When clay hardens into rock, it forms shale
A rock composed of cemented sand and gravel is conglomerate
Rocks formed in layers are said to be stratified
chemical formula for quartz SiO-2
Waves generated by underwater earthquakes are called tsunamis
The Coriolis effect is responsible for which atmospheric phenomenon hurricanes
The ozone in the atmosphere helps to block out excess of what type of rays? ultraviolet light
chemical formula for ozone O3
The gaseous water density of the atmosphere is more commonly known as humidity
What name is given to the science which studies the atmosphere? meteorology
When shale weathers, it forms mostly clay
Waste gases from industrial plants form acids that hasten chemical weathering. Most of the gases are compounds of sulfur
the most important erosional and transportation agent water
Name the mountain range, located in South America, which runs through Peru. Andes
This world-famous volcano erupted in 79 A.D., 1139, 1631, 1779, 1793, 1872, 1906, and 1944. Name this volcano Mt. Vesuvius
Name the very old mountain belt located in southern Missouri and Northern Arkansas. Ozarks
Mount St. Helens is one of the more active volcanos in the United States today. In what state is Mount St. Helens located? Washington
In geological studies, cemented volcanic ash is called tuff
the world's largest active volcano Mauna Loa, Hawaii
What is molten rock that remains underground called magma
Most cave deposits form from which mineral calcite
In an ocean, the upper layer of water with sufficient light penetration to support photosynthesis by aquatic plants is known as the photic zone
What is the name given to the excessive growth of algae and other primary producers in streams and lakes as a result of an input of soil nutrients? EUTROPHICATION
What are tidal waves called that surge up rivers from narrow estuaries called? tidal bores
Large streams that enter a standing body of water produce ___________ at their mouths deltas
Name the famous scientist who, in 1835, discovered seashell fossils 13,000 feet up in the Andes Charles Darwin
The fossil archaeopteryx is the earliest known example of a bird
Which of the following names is used to describe the zero degree longitudinal line that runs through Greenwich, England? Prime Meridian
period of strangely warm weather in autumn Indian Summer
seasonal warming of the pacific, creating warm currents that influence circulation and weather. Spanish for the boy El Nino
the trapping of heat in the atmosphere by gases Greenhouse Effect
any of a class of compounds of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine, typically used in refrigerants aerosol propellants. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
They are harmful to the ozone layer in the earth's atmosphere owing to the release of chlorine atoms upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
the temperature at which water in the air becomes a liquid dew point
flat-bottomed, puffy clouds cumulus
high clouds made of ice crystals cirrus
measures wind speed anemometer
distance above sea level altitude
the layer of gases surrounding a planet atmosphere
an opening in the earth's surface permitting the escape of liquids, fumes, etc. vent
layers of sedimentary rocks strata
Created by: Mr_Morman