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Physio Test 2

Muscle/ Nervous

Skeletal muscle striated, voluntary
Smooth muscle non-striated, involuntary, single/ multiunit
Cardiac muscle striated, involuntary, autorhythmicity
Basic functions of muscle movement, maintain posture, heat generation
Characteristics of muscle excitability, contract-ability, extensibility, elasticity
Sarcolemma plasma membrane with t-tubules
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cell
Sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth er, calcium ion storehouse
Myofibrils organized proteins responsible for contraction
Myofilaments cytoskeleton
I band light band, thin filaments, myosin
A band dark band, thick filaments, actin
Z line middle
H band center area
Myosin properties needed for contraction -ATP site closely associated with actin binding site -Position of the myosin -release of ADP, so muscle can relax & new ATP can bind
Troponin- Tropomyosin complex serve as a switch for muscle contraction and muscle relaxation tropomyosin must be moved for myosin cross bridges to attach actin- requires ca++
Motor unit a lower motor neuron & all of the skeletal muscle fibers stimulated by branches of its axon, larger units= more force, smaller units= finer degree of neural control
Muscle twitch occurs when muscle is stimulated with a single electric shock, a quick contraction then relaxation
Latent period time stimulus is applied until contraction begins
Contraction beginning of contraction to peak
Relaxation peak to end of contraction
All or none a given response will be produced to its maximum extent in response to any stimulus equal to or greater than threshold response ex- action potential to twitch
Temporal summation asynchronous contraction, twitches alternate to produce a continuous maintenance of force
Spatial summation recruitment, more cells = more force
Elastic components function smooth out muscle behavior, absorbs some of the tension as a muscle contracts, elastic recoil help muscle return to resting length
slow twitch small, rich in myoglobin (oxygen), sustain aerobic
fast twitch larger, lots of thick & thin, low myoglobin (oxygen), less blood flow, fast to fatigue
Golgi tendon organs can stop a muscle contraction, protective device, senses the tension muscle exerts on its tendons
Muscle spindles senses muscle length, muscle that require the finest degree of control have the most extrafusal: insert into tendons on each side intrafusal: several thin muscle cells in connectrive tissue sheath
Final common pathway motor pathway, consisting of the motor neurons by which nerve impulses from many central sources pass to a muscle
Smooth muscle cells filaments in a spiraling pattern, no striations, can stretch greatly, big active range, gap junctions
single unit/ multiple unit single: cells work as a collective group, lots of gap junctions multiple: each cell functions independently, few gap junctions ex- eye
Created by: brit24



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