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Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which that substance can simultaneously exist as a solid, liquid and what other state of matter? Gas (or gaseous or gases, accept vapor)
Term that describes hydrocarbons that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond Alkynes (pronounced AL-kynez)
Chemical compounds that consist of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) atoms, so they are also called hydrocarbons. Consists of only single bonds. Examples are methane, ethane, propane Alkanes
Organic compounds that consist of one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons. Ex: Ethylene, propene Alkenes
Greenhouse gases are called CFC. What does CFC stand for? Chloroflurocarbons
This element is necessary for organic chemistry Carbon
At constant temperature, the volume of a confined gas is inversely proportional to the pressure to which it is subjected. PV = k Boyle's Law
At constant pressure, the volume of a confined gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. V = kT Charles' Law
Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain equal numbers of particles (atoms, ion, molecules, electrons, etc.). Avogadro's Law
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed; the energy of the universe is constant. Conservation of Energy. First Law of Thermodynamics.
Matter can be neither created nor destroyed, though it can be rearranged. Mass remains constant in an ordinary chemical change. Conservation of Matter or Mass
The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases. Dalton's Law
The ratio between the combining volumes of gases and the product (if gaseous) can be expressed in small whole numbers. Gay-Lussac's Law
The state of an ideal gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature according to the equation: PV = nRT Ideal Gas Law
Entropy increases over time. Another way of stating this law is to say that heat cannot flow, on its own, from an area of cold to an area of hot. Second Law of Thermodynamics
British scientist who stated a version of the second law of thermodynamics also named for Max Planck is the namesake of an SI Temperature Unit Lord Kelvin (Kelvin-Planck statement)
Different forms of the same element. Ex: Graphite, diamond, coal are all forms of carbon Allotrope
Atomic Symbol Sn Tin
Atomic Symbol Pb Lead
Atomic Symbol Ag Silver
Atomic Symbol Au Gold
Atomic Symbol K Potassium
Atomic Symbol Na Sodium
Atomic Symbol Hg Mercury
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without being consumed or produced by the reaction. Catalyst
The time required for the amount of reactant to drop to one half its initial value. Half Life
A particle that is commonly ejected from radioactive nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons. All of these particle are helium nuclei Alpha Particle
A negatively charged ion. Anion
A positively charged ion Cation
The number of protons in a nucleus Atomic Number
An electron emitted by an unstable nucleus, when a neutron decays into a proton and an electron. Beta Particle
Small particles suspended in liquid move spontaneously in a random fashion. The motion is caused by unbalanced impacts of molecules on the particle. Brownian Motion
Atomic Symbol Fe Iron
Atomic Symbol W Tungsten
A material formed from elements chemically combined in definite proportions by mass. Compound
An atom or molecule that has acquired a charge by either gaining or losing electrons. Ion
Atoms or ions of an element with different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nucleus. Isotope
When two pure substances react to form a compound, they do so in a definite proportion by mass. For example, when water is formed from the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, the 'definite proportion' is 1 g of H for every 8 g of O. Law of Definite Proportions
Spontaneous emission of particles or high-energy electromagnetic radiation from the nuclei of unstable atoms. Radioactivity
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom or ion. Mass Number
Type of chemical reaction where two compounds react, and the positive ions (cation) and the negative ions (anion) of the two reactants switch places, forming two new compounds or products. Double Replacement Reaction (aka Double Displacement)
A type of reaction in which multiple reactants combine to form a single product. They release energy in the form of heat and light, so they are exothermic Synthesis Reaction
A type of chemical reaction in which a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds. These reactions often involve an energy source such as heat, light, or electricity that breaks apart the bonds of compounds. Decomposition Reaction
a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another - that is, one element is replaced by another in a compound. Single Replacement Reaction (aka Single Displacement)
the process of transferring heat by removing material by melting, vaporization or other erosive process. Ablation
A chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electrons. Acid
the number of particles found in one mole of a substance. It is the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. This experimentally determined value is approximately 6.0221 x 1023 particles per mol Avogadro's Number
a chemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons. Base
a chemical compound that neutralizes or effervesces with acids and turns litmus blue; typically, a caustic or corrosive substance of this kind such as lime or soda. Alkali
Any of the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium, occupying Group 1A of the periodic table. They are very reactive, electropositive, monovalent metals forming strongly alkaline hydroxides. Alkali Metals
Any of the divalent strongly basic metals of group II of the periodic table comprising beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium Alkaline Earth Metals
Silvery in appearance, and like all metals are good conductors of electricity. They are relatively soft metals, with lower melting points than many of the Group 2A metals Group 3A (Group IIIA) includes the metalloid boron (B), as well as the metals aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl).
The nonmetals nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), the metalloids arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb), and the metal bismuth (Bi). Also called Pnictogens. Group 5A
Includes the nonmetal carbon (C), the metalloids silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), the metals tin (Sn) and lead (Pb), and the yet-unnamed artificially-produced element ununquadium (Uuq). Group 4A
Part of the periodic table with nonmetals oxygen (O), sulfur (S), and selenium (Se), the metalloid tellurium (Te), and the metal polonium (Po) Chalogens (Group 6A)
Group 7A. fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). 7 valence electrons in their highest-energy orbitals Halogens
Group 8A. Name comes from the fact that these elements are virtually unreactive towards other elements or compounds. Noble Gases
occupy the short columns in the center of the periodic table, between Group 2A and Group 3A. They are sometimes called the d-block elements, since in this region the d-orbitals are being filled in, and are also referred to as B-group elements Transition Metals
Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1911 for the discovery of the radioactive elements, radium and polonium Marie Curie
German scientists discovered the atomic fission of uranium and set the stage for the nuclear age Hahn and Strassman
Name the person who developed a table of elements which revealed regularities in elemental properties in 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev
Who was the first American chemist to receive a Nobel Prize? He was selected in 1914 for his precise determination of atomic weights. Theodore Richards
How many electrons can occupy an s orbital? Two
necessary characteristic for electrons that share an s orbital opposite spins
the number of molecules or ions attached to a central metallic atom coordination number
Common name for calcium oxide, CaO quicklime (lime)
a material which slows neutrons moderator
the scattering of light by colloidal particles Tyndall effect (tin-dahl)
Who is accredited in the history of modern chemistry of proving that neutrons existed? James Chadwick
an easily melted product of the reaction between the flux and the impurities of an ore slag
Name the thermodynamic state function that is a measure of randomness. entropy
What term is used to describe silver which contains 7.5% copper? Sterling
Name the state function that represents the heat content of a system. Enthalpy
Which noble gas has the highest melting point ? Radon
The noble gases have low boiling points because ONLY WEAK _____________________________ FORCES HOLD THE ATOMS TOGETHER Van Der Waals
classes of salts where all of its compounds are soluble in water nitrates
mixture of three parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid and one part concentrated nitric acid aqua regia
The halogen with the largest atomic radius is: Astatine (At)
How many milligrams are in one metric carat? 200 mg
What class of organic compounds is characterized by an -OH group bonded to an alkyl group? alcohol
contain sp2 hybridized carbon atoms alkenes
After carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the next most abundant element in proteins is nitrogen
has units of "Pascal" pressure
A Poise is the unit of measure of viscosity
element represented by the symbol B Boron
lement represented by the symbol Rb Rubidium
element represented by the symbol Sn Tin
element represented by the symbol Sr Strontium
In the periodic table, which of the following identifies a horizontal row? period
Forces in ionic crystalline solids are primarily electrostatic
Normality is defined as the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution
The elements in group 1A of the periodic table are called: alkali metals
What is the name of the organic compound whose chemical name is amygdalin (pron: a- MIG-da-lin) and is found in the pits of apricots and peaches? laetrile
ame the element discovered upon its extraction from pitchblende? uranium
All proteins contain at least 5 specific elements. Four of them are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. What is the fifth element? sulfur
In a flame test, the presence of copper in a solution is evident by what color flame? blue-green
lpha rays have a ____________ charge and beta rays have a __________ charge positive; negative
he number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent molality
Among the following, the substance that is considered to be the earliest stage in coal formation is lignite
When an aldehyde is heated with Fehling's solution, the aldehyde undergoes oxidation
The hydrolysis of a fat using a solution of a strong hydroxide is called saponification
In a flame test both lithium and strontium produce various shades of this color. What is this color? red
Who hypothesized that it would be impossible to know the exact location and exact momentum of a particle at the same time? Werner Heisenberg (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle)
Ammonia can be considered a Lewis base because it can donate electrons
Acids react with bases to form salt and water
considered to be polymers of amino acids proteins
Metallic elements are often obtained from ores. Name the metallic element which is produced from the ore Bauxite aluminum
It occupies the same column in the periodic table as lead. Resistors which are commonly found in electronic circuits are often made out of this element. In addition, in one of its forms, this element is one of the hardest substances on earth. carbon
Name the six noble gases HELIUM, NEON, ARGON, KRYPTON, XENON, RADON
Name the alkali metals. LITHIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, RUBIDIUM, CESIUM, AND FRANCIUM
irst stated the law of conservation of mass Antoine Lavoisier
explained the photoelectric effect Albert Einstein
hypothesized that it would be possible for particles to have wave-like properties De Broglie
developed the equation that is used to determine the PROBABILITY of finding the electron in any given place Schrodinger
Give the empirical formula for the organic compound naphthalene C10H8
Ranges from 0.7-4.0. Generally increases to the right and up the periodic table. electronegativity
Created by: Mr_Morman