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9.AR-Visual Communic

Aural Rehab SLP401

TermDefinition
Visual communication 1.Manual (sign-languages) 2.Oral (Speechreading) -Both require vision
Speech reading Includes all available visual info, not just lips. Less emphasis now on SR, more on AR due to wide range of hearing loss accommodated by modern HAs.
Speech reading factors (4) Speaker. Signal code. Environment. Speech reader.
Factors promoting comprehension of SPEAKER (7) Familiarity. Facial expressions. Common gestures. Face-to-face position. Slightly slower rate. Precise, non-exaggerated articulation. Non-verbal cues (consistent w/message)
Things for SPEAKER to avoid (4) Chewing. Smoking. Yawning. Postures (hand over mouth)
SIGNAL CODE (2) Acoustic units of language: phonemes (consonants, vowels) Visual units of language: visemes.
SIGNAL CODE: Visemes 50% of words are visually indistinguishable (homophones/homophenes) 60% of phonemes are not visible (cognate pairs). Manner and voicing cues are invisible. 17-33% of speech is visible.
SIGNAL CODE: Viseme clues Constraints: words, sentences, context, topic. Context helps, but children don't have as much background info. Redundancy
ENVIRONMENT (5 factors) Distance (5ft). Viewing angle (0-45 deg). Competition (minimize bg noise). Lighting. Situational cues.
SPEECHREADER (6) Residual hearing. Age (improves then declines). Personality traits (motivation). Visual acuity/processing speed/perception. Visual closure (gap-filling). Gender (females a little better).
Assessment of Speechreading Ability (Tests) Nonsense syllables/paragraphs. Adult: open set verbal response. Children: closed set, picture ID. Administred via videotape or face-to-face (video yields more consistent results)
Dependence on vision When both residual hearing and speechreading are available, the listener will do better than with each component individually.
Analytic and synthetic approaches to speechreading instruction CDT- continuous discourse tracking.
Analytic activities 1.Discrimination of syllable pairs w/same or different initial consonants. 2.Locate a given initial consonant among several choices. 3.Identify a spoken word from a printed list.
Synthetic activities 1.Provide 4-6 words related to a picture. 2.Identify words pertaining to a category 3.Answer questions based on a paragraph.
Trends in speechreading instruction Combined A/V training. Self instruction (computerized). Less long-term instruction (gains tail off). Incorporation in aural rehab program.
Common Aural Rehab Program Understanding hearing loss. Using assistive listening devices. Using communication strategies and speechreading. Effective use of hearing aids.
Manual Communication systems (4) Sign language (ASL). Sign Systems [Seeing Essential English (SEE I); Signing Exact English (SEE II)]. Fingerspelling. Cued speech (8 hand shapes & 4 positions in conjunction with lip movements)
Created by: ashea01