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Phys Act & Health

Midterm

QuestionAnswer
health a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
What are some things a health scientist might measure to define a “complete state of health”? Common health endpoints; Risk factor profile; Morbidities; Temporary and chronic disabilities; Physical and mental functional level; Absenteeism; Overall productivity; Health-related fitness status
life expectancy average number of years of life to a person at a particular age
active life expectancy age to which a person is expected to live free of disabling diseases or conditions
disability-free life expectancy average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age without limitations in physical or mental functions
morbidity any departure from a state of physical of psychological well-being, short of death
3 ways morbidity can be measured The number of persons who are ill per unit of population per year. The incidence of specific conditions per unit of population per year and the average duration of these conditions
mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in some population
What types of preventable behaviors do you think are associated with an increased risk of morbidity or death? smoking; poor nutritional habits; excessive alcohol consumption; substance abuse; high risk sexual behavior; sedentary lifestyle
What are the 3 main impacts of disease? Prevalence: Frequency of occurrence Mortality: Odds of death Economic Costs
physical activity Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
exercise Planned, purposeful, or structured physical activity
physical fitness A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
aerobic training Training that improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy-producing systems and can improve cardiorespiratory endurance
anaerobic training Training that improves the efficiency of the anaerobic energy-producing systems and that can increase muscular strength and tolerance for acid-base imbalances during high-intensity efforts
cardiorespiratory fitness A health related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity
Claudius Galenus (Galen) First scientist to systematically describe the human body and to recognize that contraction is the primary action of muscle.
Bernardo Ramazzini Wrote Diseases of Workers, 1713 Observed that runners who worked as messengers avoided the health problems suffered by cobblers and tailors. Recommended sedentary workers exercise on their holidays
exercise physiology A scientific discipline dedicated to the study of the body’s function during exercise and its physiologic adaptations to regular participation in exercise.
epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in the population
What are some examples of health-related determinants? Gender Race Body Mass Index (BMI) Smoking Physical Activity
Jeremy N. Morris Began to carefully examine the health effects of active occupations on workers’ health. (London Bus Study)
London Bus Study Conductors on London’s double-decker buses, who climbed the stairs many times each day and spent 90% of their shift on their feet, had lower rates of coronary heart disease than the bus drivers, who were almost always sedentary
Dr. Ralph Paffenbarger conducted long-term epidemiological studies focusing on the relationship between physical activity and outcomes such as death attributable to cardiovascular disease. Paffenbarger and colleagues first quantified a relationship b/w health and phys activity
Steven N. Blair Conducted a series of landmark studies examining the relationship between physical fitness, measured as performance on a treadmill exercise test, and a wide range of chronic disease outcomes.
Why is there a focus on moderate intensity exercise? Two lines of research led to the conclusion that moderate-intensity physical activity provided important benefits to health and fitness. Often provided >= effects on health outcomes such as blood pressure and (HDL) cholesterol.
F.I.T.T. frequency, intensity, time, type
reliability how consistent a measure is when recorded (example: skinfold measures)
validity does a measure assess the true value or underlying concept (example: are skinfolds a "valid" measure of body fat)
accelerometer When movement occurs, a lever is displaced that generates an electrical current. Enter this information into formula that accounts for age, sex, height, and weight. Provides measure of frequency and intensity. High validity and reliability.
MET 1 MET The ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate.
MET for light intensity activity < 3
MET for moderate activity 3-4
MET for heavy activity 4-6
MET for very heavy activity 6-7.5
MET for unduly heavy activity >7.6
bias any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth
Created by: elisez24