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vision 1

what is responsible for conversion of 11-cis retinal to all trans retinal in the visual pigment rhodopsin? light. as a result: all trans retinal can no longer fit into the binding site on the opsin
formed in 1 msec as a consequence of opsin undergoing conformational changes in response to light metarhodopsin II (activated rhodopsin)
the critical link between the series of photoreceptor reactions and the electrical response is: metarhodopsin II
true or false: the all trans retinal is degraded at the end of the light induced chemical reaction false: it is converted back to the cis retinal form. pigment epithelium is responsible for this.
the dark current refers to: a high sodium conductance( there is depolarization in the dark and membrane potential is close to Na+)
in the rods, if membrane potential is moving closer to K+ equillib potential, the dark current is increased or decreased? dark current is decreased, meaning the rod receptor is hyperpolarized
first step of mechanism of Metarhodopsin II: 1 metarhodopsin activates hundreds of G-proteins called transducin
second step of mechanism of Metarhodopsin II: each transducin molecule stimulates a phosphodiesterase molecule
third step of mechanism of Metarhodopsin II: each phosphodiesterase molecule hydrolyzes 10^3 cGMP (to GMP). without the cGMP Na+ channels close:dark current is reduced
what happens to the photoreceptor potential in response to more light? more hyperpolarization. the response is graded. more light=more hyperpolarized
when the photoreceptor hyperpolarizes what happens with glutamate(neurotransmitter)? less glutamate released from photoreceptor
response of the ganglion cell to excitatory neurotransmitter: increased action potential activity
Created by: nsubact