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Graphic Design

Graphic Design Font Terms

TermDefinition
Alignment the placement of white space in a line of type in which the characters at their standard set width do not exactly fill the line length. One may position type to be aligned either centered, right, right-justified, or left.
Ampersand The typographic symbol used to designate the word and (& ) is the Latin symbol for et which means and.
Arm The horizontal stroke on some characters that does not connect to a stroke or stem at one or both ends. The top of the capital T and the horizontal strokes of the F and E are examples of arms. Additionally, the diagonal upward stroke on a K.
Ascender the upward vertical stem on some lowercase letters, such as h and b, that extends above the x-height is the ascender. The height of the ascenders is an identifying characteristic of many typefaces.
Baseline The imaginary line upon which a line of text rests. In most typefaces, the descenders on characters such as g or p extend down below the baseline while curved letters such as c or o extend ever-so-slightly below the baseline.
Bitmapped A photograph using a digital camera or scanned image from a magazine. Composed of many tiny parts, called pixels, which are often many different colors. It is possible to edit each individual pixel.
Blackletter an early, ornate, bold style of type, typically resembling Gothic.
Bleed Printing term describing a document which has images or elements that touch the edge of the page, extending beyond the trim edge and leaving no white margin. When a document has bleed, it must be printed on a larger sheet of paper and then trimmed down.
Bold a weight of type characterized by thick heavy lines
Bowl curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts (counter) of some letters such as d, b, o, D, and B
Bullet typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list
Capline A line marking the height of uppercase letters within a font.
Centered text is aligned to neither the left nor right margin; there is an even gap on each side of each line
Condensed narrower version (such as Arial Narrow) of a type font (Arial, in this case) that allows more characters to fit in the same space.
Counter the enclosed or partially enclosed circular or curved negative space (white space) of some letters such as d, o, and s
Cuneiform wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
Display Font usually larger than text fonts and give distinctive personality to a printed or displayed (on the computer monitor) publication.
Descender The portion of some lowercase letters, such as g and y, that extends or descends below the baseline
Dingbat certain fonts that have shapes and symbols in place of what would normally be letters and numbers.
DPI (Dots per inch) The measure of resolution for a video monitor or printer high-resolution printers are usually at least 1000 dpi. Laser printers typically have a resolution of 600 dpi; monitors are usually 72 dpi.
Drop Caps An oversized capital letter used at the start of a paragraph. Occupy two or more lines of body copy, usually introduced for design emphasis.
Folio A page number.
Font Traditionally, a complete set of characters for one typeface at one particular type size. Often used more loosely as a synonym for "typeface".
Flush Left the text is aligned along the left margin or gutter, also known as left-aligned, ragged right or ranged left;
Flush Right the text is aligned along the right margin or gutter, also known as right-aligned, ragged left or ranged right;
Gutter The space between two facing pages (inside margins)
Hairline the thinnest stroke found in a specific typeface that consists of strokes of varying widths.
Hard Copy A copy of the layout that is readable without the use of the computer (usually a printout of the file.)
Ideograph (also ideogram) The combination of two or more pictographs to represent a concept
Italic A type style with slightly slanted characters, used for emphasis
Justified Text that is aligned at both the left and right margins.
Kerning The adjustment of spacing between letters.
Leading (Linespacing) The amount of vertical space between lines of type. The distance from the baseline of one line of type and the baseline of another line of type immediately above or below it; also known as line spacing and usually measured in points.
Tracking (Letterspacing) The space between each letter of a word.
Leg Short, descending portion of a letter. The lower, down sloping stroke of the K and k
Meanline The line on which the top parts of most of the lowercase letters set (not the ascenders). Also called x-height. The top (imaginary) point of all lowercase characters without ascenders.
Oblique A right slanted version of a Roman typeface without changes to the letter's design. Often confused with italics
OCR optical character recognition. It is software that scans documents containing texts and converts them into documents that can be edited.
Orphan A single line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column
Pica A unit of measurement traditionally equal to about 1/6 inch. (In some modern typesetting systems, a pica is treated as exactly 1/6 inch.) There are 12 points to a pica.
Pictograph An elementary picture symbol that represents an object (noun).
PPI pixels per inch (ppi) is a measure of the sharpness (that is, the density of illuminated points) on a display screen .
Point Printing's unit of measurement which equals 1/12 of a pica or approximately 1/72 of an inch; the size of type is measured in points
Raster image made of hundreds (or thousands or millions) of either pixels or dots.
Resolution (Printer) The number of dots in an image's screen display. Printed resolution refers to dots per linear inch.
Resolution (Screen) The number of dots in an image's screen display. A monitor's resolution refers to the number of pixels per linear inch.
Reverse White text on a black background
River of Text gaps in typesetting, which appear to run through a paragraph of text, due to a coincidental alignment of spaces.The rivers can occur regardless of the spacing settings, most noticeable with full text justification or monospaced fonts.
Rule a straight line, identified by its weight in points.
Run-Around where the ends of lines of text are adjusted to conform to a box or irregular shape, rather than a simple vertical column margin. This is done where an image or other content occupies part of a column, with the text conforming to the shape of the object.
Script joined and should not be confused with cursive, which are not connected. Since it's difficult to read, its use should be limited to a few lines at a time.
Serif A small cross-stroke that appears on the arms of letters; added for design and readability.
Stem The upright element of a letter or character.
Tail A character's downward projection such as on the letter 'Q'.
Type Family All of the related fonts (styles) of a particular typeface, based on the original face.
Typeface Set of characters that share common characteristics like stroke width and the presence or absence of serifs The character set includes letters, numbers, punctuation, and symbols
Vector uses math to draw shapes using points, lines and curves.
Weight The boldness or thickness of letters.
X Height The height of the body of lowercase letters, exclusive of ascenders and descenders.
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. file format used for the web. discards data from compression.
GIF Graphics Interchange Format. 8 bit. lossless compression. animation.
TIFF Tagged Image File Format. saves images. no compression or lossless. color TIFF is 24 bit.
EPS Encapsulated Postscript. unlayered and uneditable. saved as a vector image and can rescale without resolution loss.
PDF Portable Document Format. vector format. readable by any operating system.
PSD Photoshop Document. 24 bit.
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics. XML markup language that saves vector and raster images and text. can be used for web animations.
PNG Portable Network Graphics. raster format. 24 bit color. lossless compression. has transparency. Developed for web.
DXF Autocad file. saves vector data for transfer to 3D programs. used for Computer controlled numeric machines to cut material
Created by: me505