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TCM Midterm Review

TCM Basic Theory

QuestionAnswer
What is the Yi Ching? - The Book of Changes - a book of divination - the study of yin and yang
In which direction did the Emperor face to receive the influence of Heaven or Yang? South
What is the modern literal translation of the term "Wu Xing"? Five Phases
What are the movements that correspond with each of the Five Elements? Fire - Rises Wood - Expands Earth- Centers Metal- Contracts Water- Descends
What are the Three Treasures? 1. Essence (Jing) 2. Qi 3. Mind (Shen)
What are the two types of True Qi? Nutritive Qi (Ying Qi) and Defensive Qi (Wei Qi)
What is Yuan Qi? - Original Qi - electrical energy - comes out at sources points
What is Gu Qi? - Food Qi - transformation of food into Qi
What is Zong Qi (Gathering Qi)? - Gu (Food) Qi + air
What is Zhen Qi (True Qi)? - Used in all physiological processes in our body; has to be influenced by Original Qi (hormones); Two Types: Ying Qi and Wei Qi (Nutritive and Defensive Qi)
What is Ying Qi (Nutritive Qi)? - nourishes organs - Nutrition (vitamins, minerals, sugars, etc) -a clear fluid that carries nutrients and electrolytes just beneath the skin
What is Wei Qi (Defensive Qi)? - superficial part of the immune system - more external
Yuan Qi brings about the transformation of Gathering Qi into _____, it facilitates the transformation of food Qi into _____. True Qi, Blood
The ____ is the place where the mind, spirit, and essence lodge. Gate of Life (Ming Men)
Which organs have Qi that ascends? Spleen and Liver
Which organs have Qi that descends? Lungs, Heart, Kidney, Stomach, Intestines, Bladder
Qi enters and exits from the space between the skin and muscles. What is this space called? Cou Li
What are the corresponding tissues for each of the 5 Zang Organs? Lungs - Skin Spleen- Muscles Heart- Blood Vessels Kidneys- Bones Liver- Sinews
Describe the Upper Burner. - related to Defensive Qi - Qi ascends and enters - under control of the lungs - skin and muscles
Describe the Middle Burner. - related to Nutritive Qi - Qi ascends, descends, enters, and exits - under control of stomach and spleen - digests and sends Qi to lungs and heart
Describe the Lower Burner. - Qi descends and exits - under control of the kidneys, bladder, and intestines - excretion of fluids and wastes
What are the Yin aspects of the Kidneys? Renal function; minerals and water management
What are the Yang aspects of the Kidneys? Adrenal function; essences (hormones) and Ming Men Fire (metabolism)
Identify the corresponding action each of the Three Burners has on Qi. Upper Burner: diffuses Qi to skin and muscles Middle Burner: digests, transforms and transports Qi up to lungs and heart Lower Burner: excretion of fluids, descending Qi movement
If ____ Qi does not ascend, the pure essences will not be transported upwards and diarrhea will ensue. Spleen
If ____ yin doesn't nourish liver yin, Liver Qi may ascend too much causes headaches and irritability. Kidney
If ____ Qi doesn't descend, it will stagnate in the chest and cause a cough or asthma. Lung
Qi is the ____ of Blood. Commander
Blood is the _____ of Qi. Mother
What are two types of fluids? Jin and Ye (Clear Fluids and Turbid Liquids)
What organs are in the Upper Burner? Lungs, Heart, Pericardium
What organs are in the Middle Burner? Stomach, Spleen, Gall Bladder
What organs are in the Lower Burner? Kidneys, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Liver
Which sense organ corresponds to each of the 5 Zang Organs? Liver- Eyes Heart- Tongue Spleen- Mouth Lungs- Nose Kidneys- Ears
What emotions corresponds to each of the 5 Zang Organs? Liver- Anger Heart- Overjoy/Mania Spleen- Pensiveness Lungs- Sadness/Worry Kidneys- Fear
Heart ____ blood. Governs
Liver ____ blood. Stores
Lungs govern ____ and influence _____ Qi; body fluids
Where do the body fluids originate? Stomach
Which organ transforms, separates, and excretes fluids? Kidneys
Which organ diffuses blood? Lungs
Kidneys store ____ and influence _____. essence; body fluids
Spleen governs _____, holds ____, and influences _____. Gu Qi; blood, body fluids
Which of the 5 Spirits corresponds to each of the 5 Zang Organs? Heart- Mind (Shen) Spleen- Intellect (Yi) Liver- Ethereal Soul (Hun) Kidneys- Will Power (Zhi) Lungs- Corporeal Soul (Po)
What body fluid corresponds to each of the 5 Zang Organs? Heart- sweat Lungs- nasal mucus Spleen- saliva Liver- tears Kidneys- spittle
What taste corresponds to each of the 5 Zang Organs? Heart- burnt/bitter Spleen- sweet Lungs- pungent Kidneys- salty Liver- sour
What are the external manifestations of the 5 Zang Organs? Heart- complexion Lungs- body hair spleen- lips Liver- nails Kidneys- head hair (and hormone related hair such as pubic hair)
What are the climates of the 5 Zang Organs? Heart- heat Liver- Wind Spleen- dampness Lungs- dryness Kidneys- Cold
Spleen ____ blood. Makes
The heart holds what political or administrative position? Emperor or Monarch
During activity, the blood of the liver enters the _____. Muscles and sinews
If the blood of the liver is stagnant, the periods will be ____. Painful
What is another name for the Directing Vessel? Ren Mai (basically the pituitary)
What is another name for the Penetrating Vessel? Chong Mai (sex hormones: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
The liver nourishes the sinews. In relation to the sinews, what causes tremors or convulsions? Liver Wind
Name the place to which Lung Qi is diffused or spread. Cou Li
Chinese medical texts refer to the lungs with what name? "The Lid"
What emotion knots lung Qi? Worry
What emotions deplete Lung Qi? Grief and Sadness
What are the two actions of the Spleen? Transformation and Transportation
Spleen directs Food Qi upwards to lungs to combine with air to form ____ and to the heart to form ___. Gathering Qi, Blood
Weakness in the rising function of the spleen can cause ____. Prolapse of organs
What are the two essences stored in the Kidneys? Preheaven and Postheaven
What are the functions of marrow? - fills the bones - fills the brain and spinal chord - nourishes the brain - contributes to making blood
Before the Ming dynasty, Ming Men was which of the 2 kidneys? Right
Name one of the three names for the Pericardium. 1. Master of the Heart 2. Envelope of the Heart 3. Connecting Channel of Envelope of the Heart
Dangerously high fevers are characteristic of invasion of the pericardium by what pathogen? Heat
Deficiency of blood will affect the Pericardium and Heart. What symptoms are caused in this condition? Depression and anxiety
Heart ____ descends to warm Kidney ____ which then ascends to nourish and cool the heart. Yang, Yin
The liver is on the ____ and its Qi ___. left, ascends
The lungs are on the ____ and its Qi ____. right, descends
Stagnant Liver Qi disrupts the spleen's ability to ___ and ___ food and fluids. Transform and transport
The Spleen is the root of ___, where as the Kidneys are the root of ____. Post Heaven Qi, Preheaven Qi
If Spleen Qi cannot make enough blood, this will lead to Heart blood deficiency. Identify some of the symptoms of this condition. Dizziness, insomnia, poor memory, palpitations
In Chinese the Yang organs are called ___, which can mean governing center or palace. Fu
The Classic of Difficulties says the middle burner is in the stomach and controls the __ and ___ of food and drink. Rotting and Ripening
The stomach sends food downward to which organ? Small Intestine
If Liver Qi stagnates in the middle burner, it can interfere with the descending function of Stomach Qi. List 3 symptoms of this condition. 1. Belching 2. Vomiting 3. Hiccupping
Small Intestine separates food and drink into a ___ part which goes to the Spleen and a ___ part which goes to the large intestine and bladder. Clean, dirty (or clear and turbid)
The small intestine influences what mental capacity? Mental clarity, judgement, discernment
State the main function of the large intestine. To receive food and drink from the small intestine.
The main mental aspect of the large intestine is ____. The capacity for letting go
To which organ/channel is the large intestine interiorly/exteriorly related? The lungs
The Gall Bladder stores a refined essence. What is this substance called? Bile
The Gall Bladder controls what mental capacity? Decision making (also gives courage and initiative)
The liver provides the sinews with ___ and the gall bladder providers sinews with ____. Blood, Qi
Bladder removes water by Qi transformation. The Qi to preform this comes from _____. Kidneys
The Lower Burner is described as or compared to what? A ditch
What is the place where original Qi resides? Ming Men (or Gate of Life)
The Triple Burner is the official in charge of ____. irrigation and waterways
What are the Fu organs related to each of the 5 Elements? Wood- Gall Bladder Earth- Stomach Metal- Large Intestine Fire- Small Intestine Water- Bladder
All the Extraordinary yang organs store a refined essence. What are these called? Bile, Blood, and Marrow
The Extraordinary yang organs are all related to what internal organ? Kidneys
Name the 2 Extraordinary Vessels that flow through the uterus. Directing (Ren Mai) and Penetrating (Chong Mai)
___ and ___ descends to the uterus to promote discharge of menstrual blood during the period and eggs during ovulation. Heart Qi and Heart Blood
What is the extraordinary yang organ called in men? Zi Bao or Room of Essence
In TCM, what is the brain called? Sea of Marrow
Kidney essence produces ___ which gathers to fill the brain. Marrow
The brain also depends on the heart, especially heart _____. Blood
The term "Palace of Blood" refers to which of the extraordinary organs? Blood Vessels
The bones are the residence of the ____. Marrow
Name the Four Seas. 1. Sea of Marrow (Xue Hai) 2. Sea of Blood (Chong Mai) 3. Sea of Qi (Qi Hai) 4. Sea of Food (Gu Hai)
Identify how each emotion effects Qi. Anger, Joy, Sadness, Worry, Pensiveness, Fear, Shock Anger- Qi Rises Joy- Slows Qi Sadness- dissolves Qi Worry- Knots Qi Pensiveness- Knots Qi Fear- Qi descends Shock- Scatters Qi
What is the name of the model for diagnosis described by Zhang Zhong Jing? The Theory of the 6 stages (used for cold diseases)
Identify two diagnostic models of warm disease. 1. The Four Levels 2. The Three Burners
What are the two major symptoms of invasion of exterior pathogens? Fever and aversion to cold
What are the two possible causes of constitutional weakness? 1. Age of parents 2. Health of parents
List any 6 of the 10 miscellaneous causes of disease. 1. overwork 2. drugs 3. wrong treatment 4. diet 5. weak constitution 6. trauma 7. excessive physical activity 8. excessive sexual activity 9. medications 10. toxins or poisons
Overwork is a major causes of what kind of deficiency? Kidney Yin
Excessive physical work depletes the ____ and ____. Spleen and Liver
Lack of physical exercise/activity will lead to stagnation of ___ with generation of ___. Qi; dampness
Excessive sexual activity depletes the ___. Kidney Essence
It could be said that mens sexual energy is more directly related to the ___ where as women's sexual energy is more related to ___. Kidney Essence; Blood (specifically menstrual blood)
Light trauma causes ___ and severe trauma causes ___. Qi stagnation; Blood Stasis
List the four types of diagnosis. 1. Observation 2. Palpation 3. Interrogation 4. Auscultation
Moving quickly and throwing off the bed covers are signs of ___. Heat Excess
Moving slowly, being cold, and liking to lie down are signs of ___. Yang deficiency Cold
Small, fidgety movements are a sign of ___. Yin deficiency heat
Spasms and tremors are a sign of ____. Wind
What do the following colors of complexion indicate? Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, White, Black Red- heat Green- liver issues/degrading health Blue- cold White- blood deficiency Black- Blood stasis Yellow- Damp
Cramping, spastic pain is caused by ___. Cold
Throbbing, distended pain indicates ____. Stagnation of Qi with Liver Yang Rising
Global cold indicates ___. Kidney Yang deficiency
Excessive hunger stems from ___. Stomach Heat
If vomiting is clear and watery, this means there is ___ in the stomach. Cold
What causes diarrhea with undigested food? Spleen Yang deficiency
Pale urine indicates what? Cold
Dark urine indicates what? Heat
Identify the pattern for the following types of head pain: 1. Heavy, distended 2. "inside" brain pain 3. fixed, stabbing, boring pain 1. Dampness 2. Kidney deficiency 3. Blood Stasis
Ridged nails indicate ____. Liver Blood deficiency
Red skin macules indicate ____. Heat in the blood
Partially stripped or absent tongue coating indicates ____. Stomach Yin deficiency
Infected bleeding gums with feeling of heat and a desire to drink indicates ____. Stomach heat
____ usually causes tingling, whereas phlegm and ___ causes more numbness. Blood stasis; wind
Insomnia with frequent waking, night sweats, and palpitations indicate ____. Heart and Kidney Yin deficiency with heat
Insomnia with heaviness, bloating, restless sleep, and excessive dreaming indicates ___. Retention of food
Night sweating is an indication of ___. Yin Deficiency
Sweating during the day (with exertion) is an indication of ___. Yang deficiency
Sweating from the chest and head only indicates ____. Dampness
Is a loud, whistling high pitched tinnitus an indication of liver excess of kidney deficiency? Liver Excess
Is the feeling of pressure in the eyes an indication of liver yin deficiency or kidney yin deficiency? Kidney Yin deficiency
What causes fever only with emanating heat? Interior invasion of pathogens
What causes fever and chills simultaneously? Exterior invasion of pathogens
What causes alternating fever and chills? half interior, half exterior invasion of pathogens
What is it called when Qi stagnates and causes cold limbs? Four Rebellions
Describe the Wood body type. Greenish complexion, small head, long face, broad shoulders, straight back, sinewy body, tall, small hands and feet
Describe the Fire body type red complexion wide teeth pointed, small head well developed shoulders curly hair or not much hair small hands and feet walks briskly
Describe the Earth body type. yellowish complexion round face wide jaws large head well developed shoulders and back large abdomen large thighs and calf muscles well built muscles
Describe the Metal body type. (WILL!) Pale complexion square face small head small shoulders and upper back flat abs strong voice
Describe the Water body type. dark complexion wrinkly skin large head broad cheeks narrow shoulders large abdomen long spine
Created by: APrenger