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Cold War

The Two Superpowers of the Cold War United States, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) aka Soviet Union
A 1948 American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of WW2. Soviets declined any money. Marshall Plan (Named after former general and then-Secretary of State, George C. Marshall)
An American foreign policy to stop Soviet imperialism during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by the namesake president on March 12, 1947 when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. Truman Doctrine (Named after 33rd President Harry S. Truman)
Soviet Premier who was in power when the Cold War began Joseph Stalin (Ruled from the 1920s until his death in 1953)
Economic system in which the Soviet Union spread to Eastern Europe countries after World War II Communism
Name of World War II Conference in which the UK, US, and USSR agreed on democratic elections throughout Europe after the War. The Soviet Union reneged on this and instilled puppet governments in Eastern Europe. Yalta Conference (February 1945)
Top secret American program that developed the atomic bomb. Joseph Stalin knew of its' existence before Truman Manhattan Project (1941-1945)
Year of the first Soviet atomic bomb test (Joe 1); destroying the US's monopoly on atomic weapons 1949
Name of the first atomic bomb test by the United States in Alamogordo, New Mexico in July 1945 Trinity
Name of the 1st atomic bomb; dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945 Little Boy
Name of the 2nd atomic bomb; dropped on Nagasaki, on August 9th, 1945 Fat Man
During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949)
In response to the Soviet blockade of Berlin, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the city's population Berlin Airlift (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949)
The four countries who occupied a section of Germany after World War II United States, France, England (all in the West) and the Soviet Union (all in the East)
Eventually, the US, French and English sections of Germany united to form a democratic, pro-West government. West Germany
The capital of West Germany Bonn
The Soviet-occupied area of Germany eventually became this pro-Communist government East Germany
The former capital of Germany was split into 2 sections West Berlin and East Berlin (capital of East Germany)
In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form this treaty. If any member was attacked; it would be seen as an attack on all members. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
In 1955, the Soviet Union and its satellite, puppet states in Eastern Europe created this alliance to counter NATO. It is named after the capital of Poland Warsaw Pact (1955-1991)
US Diplomat, nicknamed Mr. X, who wrote the Long Telegram, which proposed the idea of containment; stop the spread of the Soviets and communism. Put pressure on them and eventually they will break up and change. George F. Kennan
The Cold War policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. Containment
The site of the first hot war of the Cold War in 1950. The Korean War (1950-1953; communist North Korea had invaded South Korea in the spring of 1950; the US and UN forces were sent to push back the North Koreans)
The line that divided North and South Korea 38th Parallel
The theory that if one country went communist, then the ones next to them would also fall to communism Domino Theory
President Truman was blamed for losing this country to the communists; after Mao Zedong successfully claimed control of this Asian nation in 1949 People's Republic of China
Anti-communist Chinese forces fled to this island after China went Communist. Taiwan (Republic of China)
Founder of North Korea and grandfather of current North Korean leader Kim Jong Un Kim Il-Sung
After almost conquering of all North Korea, this communist country launched a counterattack on the US/UN forces and drove them down past the 38th parallel. The rest of the war was a stalemate. China
Popular American general who launched a successful attack against the North Koreans at Inchon. He was eventually fired by President Truman in 1951 for disobeying the President. Douglas MacArthur
This popular US general campaigned as a Republican to end the war in Korea in 1952. He won in a landslide and the two sides agreed to a cease fire in 1953; one that still exists today. Dwight D. Eisenhower
This California politician was a well-known anti-Communist crusaders who became Eisenhower's Vice-President. Richard M. Nixon
The name of the informal television debate between Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev; in which both men argued about which country was more superior The Kitchen Debate
The husband and wife who were charged with espionage and giving American atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. They were both executed. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Soviet premier who replaced Joseph Stalin Nikita Khrushchev
In 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill claimed that Eastern Europe was now under the control of the Soviet Union in this famous speech. Iron Curtain
An American government official who was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. Then-Congressman Richard Nixon led the fight to expose him. Alger Hiss
This Wisconsin Republican Senator became very popular in the early 1950s for his hunt for communists in the government and America. He eventually overreached and his popularity dwindled before his death from alcoholism Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
Name for the communist hunts that McCarthy led Witch Hunts
The House of Representatives committee called many Americans, especially celebrities, to stand before them and to reveal if they had ever been members of the Communist Party or if they knew any Communists in the US House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Name given to actors/musicians/writers who were denied work for their alleged connections to Communists Blacklist
Name given to the fear of communism spreading in the US Red Scare
Vietnamese revolutionary who pushed for a united, communist Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh
This European country lost control of Vietnam in 1954 after losing at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. France
Name given to the countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Indochina
Spy plane the US produced for reconnaissance against the Soviet Union U-2 Spy Plane
American pilot who was shot down from his U-2 and captured by the Soviet Union; causing massive embarrassment for the US Gary Powers Jr.
Vietnam was eventually into two countries; North Vietnam (communist) and South Vietnam (pro-US). What was the line that divided them called? 17th parallel
Crisis over this waterway between France, US and USSR almost led to a nuclear war in 1956 until the US stepped in and cooler heads prevailed. Suez Crisis (Suez Canal)
Eisenhower Secretary of State who advocated an aggressive stance against Communism throughout the world. He wanted to push the Soviets to the brink of a nuclear war, before getting them to surrender. John Foster Dulles (His policy was known as brinksmanship. One of the airports in DC is named after him)
Youthful Democrat Presidential candidate who won a close 1960 election. He claimed that Eisenhower and the Republicans had let a missile gap happen between the US and USSR John F. Kennedy
Name of the 1957 satellite the USSR shot into space; shocking the world and ushering in the Space Race Sputnik I
Organization that Eisenhower created after the launch of Sputnik National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Russian Cosmonaut who was the first human in space Yuri Gagarin
Development of this fusion weapon in 1952 further increased the arms race between the US and USSR Hydrogen Bomb
A 1959 Communist revolution on this island country 90 miles from the US further increased Cold War tensions Cuba
Leader of the Communist Revolution in Cuba Fidel Castro
Disastrous July 1961 failed invasion of Cuba by ex-Cubans that was a major blunder for the US Bay of Pigs Invasion
A 13 day period in October 1962 in which USSR nuclear missiles were discovered in Cuba by the US. The closest either side came to nuclear war; but cooler heads prevailed Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1964 Congressional Resolution that began to escalate the war in Vietnam. The evidence for the resolution was later on found to be false. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Democratic President whose popularity sank due to the Vietnam War and refused to run for re-election in 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson
Republican Presidential Candidate who promised to end the war in Vietnam Richard M. Nixon
A major reverse of containment, this policy was a relaxation of tension between the US, USSR and China during the 1970s. detente (French for relaxation of tension)
Surprise visit by President Nixon to this country shocked the world in 1972. China
Soviet Premier who replaced Nikita Khrushchev in 1964 Leonid Breshnev
Republican President, elected in 1980, reverse the policy of detente and built up the nuclear arsenal to pressure the Soviet Union into change and collapse Ronald Reagan
Soviet Premier who came to power in 1985 who wanted to reform the Soviet Union. He is known for glasnost or openness; restrictions were eased on literature and arts during his time. Mikhail Gorbachev
This structure began in 1961 and was designed to keep East Germans from fleeing to the West. It was torn down in 1989 Berlin Wall
Speech Kennedy gave after the Berlin Wall was completed in 1963 showing US solidarity with the West Germans Ich Bin Ein Berliner
Reagan's famous line at the Berlin Wall in 1987 to Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
Treaty that ended atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963 after the effects of radiation had killed civilians Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Created by: Mr_Morman