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YGK Physicists

Reconciled Rutherford’s results from the gold foil experiment with Planck’s quantum theory to create a model of the atom in which electrons resided in specific energy levels at specific stable radii. Niels Bohr (1885–1962) Fled to the US in World War II under the pseudonym Baker and contributed to the Manhattan Project.
His work quantifying the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics won the 1929 Nobel Prize Physics. His doctoral thesis proposed that all particles have a characteristic wavelength dependent on their momentum was endorsed by Einstein Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) His last name is pronounced approximately [duh BROY].
Photoelectric effect & Brownian motion. Special relativity: finite, constant speed of light. Energy of a body is = to its mass X the speed of light squared. General relativity, which generalized special relativity to account for gravitational fields Albert Einstein (1879–1955)
His work with statistical physics laid the groundwork for modern electronics and solid-state technologies. Suggested the existence of the neutrino in order to balance nuclear beta-decay chains. Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) Main contributor to the Manhattan Project. Accurately predicted the low-temperature behavior of electrons. Particles which obey Fermi-Dirac statistics are called fermions in his honor
Developed the path integral formulation of quantum theory that utilized the “sum over histories,” taking into account all possible paths a particle could take. This led to quantum electrodynamics and earned him the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics. Richard Feynman (1918–1988) Aside from being a prolific physicist, Feynman was also an accomplished bongo player and sketch artist
1st to explain the implications of the Big Bang theory of cosmology. Correctly predicted the abundance of hydrogen and helium in the early universe. Theorized that the heat from the Big Bang would still be visible as cosmic microwave background radiation George Gamow (1904–1968)
His famous uncertainty principle states that the more accurately an object’s position can be observed, the less accurately its momentum can. Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976) Heisenberg earned the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the allotropic forms of hydrogen.
Allowed quantum theory to move forward in the early 20th century by correctly modeling how an object radiates heat, solving the ultraviolet catastrophe, which was a predicted unbounded increase in the amount of radiation emitted at high frequencies Max Planck (1858–1947) He suggested that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in specific packages, called quanta positing that the energy of this photon was equal to its frequency times a fixed value h, now known as Planck’s constant.
His gold foil experiment provided the first evidence that the atom was made up of a large, positively-charged nucleus, surrounded by a cloud of negatively-charged electrons.He won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) Early leader in nuclear fission techniques, having discovered the decay of carbon-14 & providing the impetus for modern carbon dating. He discovered the proton & neutron, the latter in cooperation with James Chadwick.
Contributed to the early formulations of quantum theory as a foil to Heisenberg, Bohr, and Dirac, criticizing their Copenhagen interpretation with thought experiments like his famous Cat argument. Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961)
Husband and wife who rigorously isolated and experimented on radioactive materials, forming the basis for early nuclear and particle physics. Pierre Curie (1859-1906) Marie Curie (1867-1945)
One of the first to attempt a generalization of quantum theory to relativistic speeds, the result of which was the Dirac equation. Paul Dirac (1902–1984)
Predicted the existence of quarks, which compose protons, neutrons, and other, heavier particles. Murray Gell-Mann (born 1929)
determined the charge of the electron by meticulously observing oil droplets in an electric field and noting the time it took them to fall a certain distance. Robert Millikan (1868–1953; not to be confused with Robert Mullikan, a chemist)
Oversaw much of the Manhattan project, but was later stripped of his security clearance during the McCarthy-era Red Scare, as a result of his acquaintance with communists and his enmity with Edward Teller. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967)
Namesake exclusion principle prohibits most types of particles from occupying the same state, and forms the basis for chemical bonds. Wolfgang Pauli’s (1900–1958)
Controversial physicist who was instrumental in designing the world's first hydrogen bomb (based on fusion; not fission) Edward Teller (1908-2003)
Credited with inventing the V2 rocket for Nazi Germany and then the Saturn V rocket for the United States Wernher von Braun (1912-1977)
Created by: Mr_Morman