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Polish astronomer & physician. Founder of modern astronomy. Deduced that the Earth rotates on its axis and that the planets revolve around the sun: the heliocentric theory Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543)
Invented calculus but remembered for his law of universal gravitation. In 1664, he figured out that gravity is the force that draws objects toward each other. It explained why things fall down & why the planets orbit around the Sun. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
English chemist/physicist who made advances in electricity/magnetism. Invented electric motor & generator and the transformer. Deduced the principle of electromagnetic induction (Law of Electrolysis) Michael Faraday (1791-1867) The Faraday constant is named after him.
He not only discovered that disease came from microorganisms, but he also realized that bacteria could be killed by heat and disinfectant. Developed inoculation for anthrax, cholera, and rabies in animals Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
His theory of special relativity explains the relationships between speed, time & distance. It states that the speed of light always remains the same (186,000 miles/sec) regardless of how fast someone or something is moving toward or away from it. Albert Einstein
In 1927 he proposed the Big Bang theory of the universe. It says that all the matter in the universe was originally compressed into a tiny dot. In a fraction of a second, the dot expanded, & all the matter instantly filled what is now our universe. Georges Lemaître
The two scientists found the double-helix structure of DNA. It’s made up of two strands that twist around each other and have an almost endless variety of chemical patterns that create instructions for the human body to follow. James Watson of the US and Francis Crick of England. In 1962, they were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work.
The Periodic Table is based on the 1869 Periodic Law proposed by this Russian chemist. He had noticed that, when arranged by atomic weight, the chemical elements lined up to form groups with similar properties. Dmitri Mendeleev
He won a 1922 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on the structure of an atom and for his work in the development of the quantum theory. Although he help develop the atomic bomb, he frequently promoted the use of atomic power for peaceful purposes. Niels Bohr
In 1983 and 1984 they discovered the HIV virus and determined that it was the cause of AIDS. Luc Montagnier of France and Robert Gallo of the United States
A German physicist, discovered X-rays in 1895. For this discovery, Roentgen was awarded the first-ever Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Wilhelm Roentgen
Notable discoveries include the identification of the differences between veins and arteries, and recognising that the larynx generates voice. Famous for introducing medical experimentation Galen
Famous for discovering the cell. He had an extraordinary ability to manipulate microscopes, and when applying this ability to looking closely at a thin slice of cork observed empty spaces contained with walls - terming them cells. Robert Hooke
Father of modern taxonomy. Came up with the system of naming, ranking, and classifying organisms that we still use today. He separated all living things into 3 kingdoms; animals, plants and minerals. Carl Linnaeus
Founder of modern genetics. He used peas to discover and demonstrate the laws of genetic inheritance, coining the terms dominant and recessive genes in the process Gregor Mendel
Duo famous for being the first scientists to clone a mammal (Dolly the Sheep) Keith Campbell and Ian Wilmut
Greek who discovered that any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes
Husband and wife remembered for her discovery of radium and polonium and described radioactivity. Wife invented the mobile x-ray unit and receive Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 Marie and Pierre Curie
Invented the first successful vaccine for polio in 1954 Jonas Salk (1914-1995)
Italian inventor of the radio. Made improvements in wireless communication, allowing messages to be sent across English Channel. Worked on developing shortwave wireless communication Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
Inventor of the TV Philo Farnsworth
American Inventor of the telephone and induction balance for finding metal objects in the body. Founder the journal Science, a school for the deaf, the Aerial Experiment Association & President of the Nat'l Geographic Society Alexander Graham Bell
Designer of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Created artificial lighting and demonstrated wireless communication. Principle of rotating magnetic field. Installed electric power machinery at Niagara Falls Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
The first partially successful photograph of a camera image was made in approximately 1816 but this man. Nicéphore Niépce
Inventor of the Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg
Discovered Infrared Light Wiliam Herschel
Persian astronomer and mathematician. Determined several astronomical parameters and calculated tables of tangents, cotangents, advancing the study of trigonometry Abul' Wafa (940-998)
Greek philosopher and scientist. A student of Plato, he taught and wrote about logics, metaphysics, natural science, rhetoric, ethics and poetics. He tutored Alexander the Great and identified dolphins. Aristotle (384-332 B.C.)
Mathematician and inventor. He perfected a calculating machine and invented the ophthalmoscope; instrument used to view interior of the eye. Credited with building 1 of the 1st programmable computers Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
English philosopher, scientist & Franciscan monk. Made gunpowder & experimented in optics & alchemy. Wrote on logic, grammar, math, philosophy, philology. Imprisoned on heresey Roger Bacon (1220-1292)
American chemist and inventor. Discovered Bakelite, a synthetic resin. Leo Hendrick Baekeland (1863-1944)
South African surgeon. In 1967, he performed the 1st successful human heart transplant. Christiaan Neethling Barnard (1922-2001)
German engineer and auto manufacturer. Leader in construction of motor-driven vehicles. In 1883, he founded Benz & Co in Mannheim, to produce stationary engines. Started making cars in 1893 Carl Friedrich Benz (1844-1929)
American chemist who patented the synthetic material nylon in 1937. Wallace Hume Carothers (1896-1937)
German engineer, inventor and auto manufacturer. Received patent for small, high-speed internal combustion engine. Leader in developing the automobile. Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (1834-1900)
English naturalist best known for his theory of evolution by natural selection. Sailed on the HMS Beagle collecting flora, fauna and fossil from the Galapagos Archipelago Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
American inventor who developed Kodak box camera in 1888 after perfecting the process for making photographic dry plates and flexible film. George Eastman (1854-1932)
American inventor with 1000+ inventions: electric vote recorder, printing telegraph, microphone, phonograph, incandescent electric light bulb, alkaline storage battery, high speed camera & kinetograph Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) "Wizard of Menlo Park"
German chemist and bacteriologist. Made great innovations in immunology and chemotherapy. Won Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Elie Metchnikoff in 1908 Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915)
Deduced the theory of relativity, Brownian motion and the photoelectric effect. Made key contributions to quantum theory. Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. Served at in Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Greek geometer. Developed the theory of plane geometry. His mathematical treatise, Elements, became the staple for later works in geometry until the 19th century, when math started departed from that system. Euclid (300 B.C.)
Scottish bacteriologist. Accidentally discovered the 1st antibiotic, penicillin, in 1928, one of the most important contributions in 20th century medicine. Won Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine in 1945 Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)
American statesman, inventor and philosopher. Created foundation of public libraries, invented an improved heat stove, experimented with electricity and kites. Signed Declaration of Independence. Abolitionists Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Austrian neurologist/psychologist. Theorized that repressed memories lead to unhealthy mental states. Id, Ego, Superego make up the mind. Described the Oedipus Complex; children are jealous of the same-sex parent and lustful for the opposite sex one. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
American engineer. Built 1st affordable steamboat, opening up river transportation routes to commercial steamboats. Designed 1st submarine & war steamboat. Robert Fulton (1765-1815)
Discovered isochronism of the pendulum. Created hydrostatic balance. Illustrated that bodies of different weights fall w/the same velocity. Improved the refracting telescope. Tried by the Inquisition for supporting heliocentrism Galileo (1564-1642)
Co-founder of Microsoft. By licensing Windows, web browsers and productivity software to manufacturers of IBM-compatible PCs, he became software maker to the world. Nearly 90% of consumers & business use his work. Bill Gates (1955-)
American army officer and engineer. Chief engineer for Panama Canal who saw canal construction through to completion George Washington Goethals (1858-1928)
British primate research. First to document that chimpanzees used objects as tools, communicated with facial expressions, body language and sound and sometimes ate meat. Jane Goodall (1934-)
American inventor who developed vulcanization process for treating rubber in 1839. Charles Goodyear (1800-1860)
English physician. 1st to accurately describe the human circulatory system and the function of the heart. William Harvey (1578-1657)
Greek physician known as the father of medicine. Developed a code of medical ethics known as the Hippocratic Oath; which all new doctors swear to uphold the oath. Hippocrates (460-377 BC)
1st scientist to use computer analysis to study the molecular structure of vitamin B12, penicillin and insulin. Awarded Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-1994)
American astronomer who first discovered the Milk Way galaxy is but one of billions. Studied the redshift in galaxies' light spectra, he helped confirm that the universe is expanding. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) Namesake of the Hubble Telescope
1st to use a pendulum in clocks to help regulate time. Designed new method of grinding/polishing lenses. Solved questions about centrifugal force. Designed wave theory of light that stated light moved in waves of constant vibrations Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)
American inventor who developed composition billiard balls, water filter & purifier, designed a new type of sewing machine and process for solidifyin hardwood John Wesley Hyatt (1837-1920)
Neoplatonic philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Advance algebraic theory. Hypatia of Alexandria (370-415)
English physician. In 1796, after observing that milkmaids who had cowpox did not get smallpox, he vaccinated an 8-year old boy with cowpox vesicles, hence successfully testing a vaccine for smallpox Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
Cofounder of Apple. Advanced the appeal and usefulness of computing through such innovative, elegantly designed products as the Mac; which introduced the mouse and graphical user interface, the iPod, iPhone and 1st table, iPad Steve Jobs (1955-2011)
German astronomer. Deduced ray theory of light to explain vision; founder of modern optics. Established 3 laws of planetary motion. His work contributed to the development of calculus. Newton built his theories on this man's work. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
American electrical engineer who created 1st electric cash register, automotive self-starter engine, and numerous automobile improvements. Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958)
French chemist and father of modern chemistry. He named oxygen and proposed law of conservation of matter (nothing is destroyed or created in a chemical reaction, merely altered). Killed during the French Revolution Antoine-Lauren Lavoisier (1743-1794)
American physicist who produced radioactive isotopes and used radioactivity in medicine. Introduced use of neutron beams in cancer treatment. Invented the cyclotron. Ernest Lawrence (1901-1958)
Archaeologist. Discovered the skeleton of a primitive ape in 1948, a skull of 1.75 million year old hominid in 1959 and a fossilized footprint of a human so old it led her to deduce that humans walked upright 3.6 mil years ago Mary Leakey (1913-1996)
Dutch inventor. Redesigned the microscope, achieving magnifications of more than 250. Discovered protozoa and was the first to publish drawings of bacteria. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
Dutch spectacle maker credited with inventing the 1st telescope in 1608. Hans Lippershey (1570-1619)
Alchemist. Invented the prototype of an autoclave, a device used for distilling liquids; an apparatus-kerotakis-used to make alloys and a double boiler Mary the Jewess (1st century BC)
German scientist who wrote the 1st German handbook of astronomy and physics. Konrad van Megenberg (1309-1374)
Austrian biologist. His experiments crossbreeding peas led to the develop of Mendel's law stating that characteristics in animals and plants are passed down through successive generations. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
German naturalist. Her observations & paintings of insect metamorphoses were collected in her book Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium; advanced biological classification Maria Merian (1647-1717)
Italian anatomist. Wrote textbook on human anatomy that was standard text until Andreas Vesalius published his opus on human anatomy in 1543. Mondino d'Luzzi (1275-1326)
French inventors who built 1st hot-air balloon in 1783, which stayed aloft for 10 minutes. Later, built balloon that carried the 1st person in air. Montgolfier Brothers
American artist and inventor. Created Morse code and telegraph received a patent for it in 1837. Samuel Morse (1791-1872)
American physicist who directed the Manhattan Project (1942-1945) which developed the atomic bomb. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
English chemist and mathematician who at 19 was the 1st person to produce an artificial dye (it was accidental; he was trying to synthesize quinine) Sir William Henry Perkins (1838-1907)
English chemist who discovered that plants produce oxygen and that sunlight was necessary for planet growth Joseph Priestley (1733-1804)
Persian physician who identified differences between smallpox and measles; one of the earliest examples of a doctor being able to identify a disease. Rhazes (854-925)
English physicist who invented the calotype, a photographic process faster than Louis Daguerre's daguerreotype. The calotype was the first to use a negative for making multiple prints. William Talbot (1800-1877)
Italian physicist who pioneered electric studies. Invented the voltaic battery; the 1st electric battery. The electrical unit volt is named after him. Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)
Scottish inventor and engineer. Invented modern condensing steam engine in 1765 and double-acting engine in 1782. A single unit of energy was named after him. James Watt (1736-1819)
German scientist who accidentally discovered X-Rays in 1895. Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923)
English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory John Dalton (1766-1844)
Father of nuclear physics. Discovered the proton and nucleus of an atom. Famous for his gold-foil experiment. Discovered the concept of radioactive half-life. Differentiated alpha & beta radiation Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
In 1932, this man proved that neutrons exist; confirming what Ernest Rutherford had predicted years before. James Chadwick (1891-1974)
In 1897 this British physicist discovered the electron. JJ Thomson (1856-1940)
Inventor of Dynamite Alfred Nobel
Inventor of the Revolver Samuel Colt
Inventor of the World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee
Inventor of bifocal lens Benjamin Franklin
Inventor of Scuba Gear Jacques Cousteau
Inventor of X-Ray Imagining Wilhelm Roentgen
Photography pioneer, invented paperback flexible film, the Kodak camera George Eastman
Inventor of the phonograph Thomas Edison
Inventor of the telegraph Samuel Morse
Inventor of the sewing machine Elias Howe
Inventor of the steel plow John Deere
Inventor of the paddlewheel steamship Robert Fulton
Inventor of the telephone Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the cotton gin Eli Whitney
Inventor of air brakes, mainly for transportation George Westinghouse
Launcher of the first liquid-fuel rocket Robert H. Goddard
Rubber industry pioneer; discovered the Vulcanization Charles Goodyear
Inventor of the mechanical mower-reaper Cyrus McCormick
Inventor of arc lighting and incandescent lamp Nicolai Tesla
Inventor of barbed wire Joseph Glidden
Inventor of the zipper Whitcomb B. Johnson
Created by: Mr_Morman