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PC Service Upgrade

Chapter 6 Terms

QuestionAnswer
25-Pin SCSI Connector A SCSI connector used by narrow SCSI that looks like a parallel port connector.
50-Pin SCSI Connector A type of SCSI connector, used by narrow SCSI. Also known as an "A Connector".
68-Pin SCSI Connector A type of SCSI connector used by wide SCSI. Also known as a "P Connector".
80 -Conductor IDE Cable A 40 pin 80 wire PATA ribbon cable. 40 wires are used for communication and data. Additional 40 wires are ground wires to eliminate crosstalk on the cable. Required for ATA/66 and above.
ANSI American National Standards Institute. A non-profit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards.
ATAPI Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface. An interface standard, part of the IDE ATA standards, that allows tape drives, optical drives, and other drives to be treated like an IDE hard drive by the system.
Autodetection Ability in BIOS to recognize and configure devices and memory attached to the motherboard.
Data Cartridge A full sized cartridge that holds data and is used in a tape drive.
DMA Transfer Mode Direct Memory Access. A transfer mode used by devices, including the hard drive, to transfer data to memory without involving the CPU.
Enhanced IDE PATA standard that supports the configuration of four IDE devices in a system.
External SATA A standard for external drives based on the SATA that uses a special external shielded SATA cable up to 2 meters long. eSATA is up to 6 times faster than USB or FireWire.
Fault Tolerance The degree to which a system can tolerate failures. Adding redundant components, such as disk mirroring or disk duplexing, is a way to build in fault tolerance
Floppy Disk Drive A drive that can hold either a 51/4" or 31/2" floppy disk. Also called floppy drive
Hard Disk Drive The main secondary storage device of a computer. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives. Magnetic and solid state. Also called hard drive.
Hard Drive The main secondary storage device of a computer. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives. Magnetic and solid state. Also called hard disk drive.
Host Adapter The circuit board that controls a SCSI bus supporting as many as seven or 15 separate devices. The host adapter controls communication between the SCSI bus and the computer.
Hot-Swapping Allows you to connect and disconnect a device while the system is running.
Hybrid Hard Drive A hard drive that uses both magnetic and SSD technologies. The bulk of the storage uses the magnetic component, and a storage buffer on the drive is made of an SSD component. Windows ReadyDrive supports hybrid hard drives.
IDE Integrated Drive(or Device) Electronics. A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and this increasing speed, as well as reducing price.
Logical Unit Number A number assigned to a logical device (such as a tray in a cd changer) that is part of a physical SCSI device, which is assigned a SCSI ID.
Low-Level Formatting A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
Magnetic Hard Drive One of two technologies used by hard drives here data is stored as magnetic spots on disks that rotate at high speed.
Minicartridge A tape drive cartridge that is only 3 1/4x2 1/2x 3/5 Inches. it is small enough to allow two drives to fit into a standard 5 inch drive bay of a pc case.
Mirrored Volume the term used by Windows for RAID 1 level that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance.
NAND Flash Memory Stands for "Not And". The type of memory used in SSD drives and refers to the logic used when storing a one or zero in the grid of rows and columns on the memory chip.
Parallel ATA An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40 pin flat or round data cable or an 80 conductor cable and a 40 pin IDE connector.
PIO Transfer Mode Programmed Input output. a transfer mode that uses the CPU to transfer data from the hard drive to memory. PIO mode is slower than DMA mode.
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive (or independent) disks. Several methods of configuring multiple hard drives to store data to increase logical volume size and improve performance, or to ensure that if one hard drive fails, the data is still available from a
RAID 0 Known as a Stripped Volume. Using space from two or more physical disks to increase the disk space available for a single volume. Performance improves because data is written evenly across all disks.
RAID 1 Known as a Mirrored Volume. A type of drive imaging that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance.
RAID 1+ 0 A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 that requires at least 4 disks to work as an array of drives and provides the best redundancy and performance.
RAID 10 A combination of RAID 1 and RAID 0 that requires at least 4 disks to work as an array of drives and provides the best redundancy and performance.
RAID 5 Known as RAID 5 Volume. A technique that stripes data across 3 or more drives and uses parity checking, so that if one drive fails, the other drives can re-create the data stored on the failed drive. RAID 5 drives increase performance and provide fault t
RAID 5 Volume A technique that stripes data across 3 or more drives and uses parity checking, so that if one drive fails, the other drives can re-create the data stored on the failed drive. RAID 5 drives increase performance and provide fault tolerance.
Read/Write head A sealed, magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk in a hard disk drive, either reading data from or writing data to the disk.
ReadyDrive The Windows Vista and newer technology that supports a hybrid hard drive.
S.M.A.R.T. Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology. A system BIOS and hard drive feature that monitors hard drive performance, disk spin up time, temperature, distance between the head and the disk, and other mechanical activities of the drive in order to
SCSI Small Computer System Interface. A fast interface between a host adapter and the CPU that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices.
SCSI ID A number from 0 to 15 assigned to each SCSI device attached to the daisy chain.
Sequential Access A method of data access used by tape drives, whereby data is written or read sequentially from the beginning to the end of the tape or until the desired data is found.
Serial ATA An ATAPI interface standard that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80 conductor cable and is easier to configure than PATA systems.
Solid State Device An electronic device with no moving parts. a storage device that uses memory chips to store data instead of spinning disks.
Solid State Drive A hard drive that has no moving parts.
Spanning Using a spanned volume to increase the size of a volume.
Stripped Volume a type of dynamic volume used for two or more hard drives that writes to the disks evenly rather than filling up allotted space on one and then moving onto the next.
Terminating Resistor The resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage.