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YGK Feminists

British author and philosopher who is best known for writing A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792). In that text, she argued that women are inherently equal to men, but appear inferior because they do not have the same access to education. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797)
a Quaker who agitated for both abolitionism and women’s rights. Lucretia Mott (1793–1880)
Born into slavery as Isabella Baumfree in Dutch-speaking New York. She gave herself this name in 1843 when she converted to Methodism and informed her friends that the spirit had called her. Sojourner Truth (1797–1883)
Became the first female candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1872 when she ran with the Equal Rights Party Victoria Woodhull
picketed the White House and went on a hunger strike to agitate for the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. She later wrote the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923 Alice Paul
A journalist who founded and edited Ms. magazine. For an article in Show magazine in 1963, she went undercover as a Playboy bunny. Gloria Steinem (b. 1934)
In 1957, Smith conducted a survey of graduates of her alma mater, Smith College, and found that many of them were unhappy with their lives. Betty Friedan (1921–2006)
The first black female candidate for a major party’s presidential nomination in 1972 (Democrat) Shirley Chisholm
First female elected to the House of Representatives in 1916. Pacifist. Only person to vote no on both WWI and WWII. Campaigned against the Vietnam War in her 80s. Jeanette Rankin
The first woman to serve in both houses of Congress and the first to be nominated for the presidency of a major party 1964 (Republican) Margaret Chase Smith
An early advocate of birth control and reproductive rights who founded the American Birth Control League, which later evolved into Planned Parenthood. Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)
One of the most outspoken and most famous proponents of women’s suffrage in the United States. Along with Stanton, she co-founded the first women’s temperance society in the 1850s after they were excluded from an all-male temperance society. Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)
most famous for writing the “Declaration of Sentiments” that she presented at the first women’s rights conference in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902)
Most prominent advocate for women’s voting rights in the United Kingdom. As one of the founders of the Women’s Social and Political Union, she called for direct action and frequent protests to force male politicians to grant votes to women. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)
Wrote A Room of One’s Own, argued that a woman must have money/space in order to express herself. She created Judith Shakespeare, William’s imagined sister, who could not achieve the status of her brother b/c she did not have the same access to education. Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)
French writer and philosopher perhaps best known for her feminist treatise The Second Sex (1949). In that work, she argued that “womanhood” is defined by its differences from masculinity, which is perceived as normal. Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
Claimed that his wife, Harriet Taylor, co-authored The Subjection of Women (1869) with him, a claim which is debated by historians. John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) and Harriet Taylor Mill (1807–1858)
often grouped with Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the “triumvirate” of American voting rights campaigners. She is famous for keeping her maiden name after marriage. Lucy Stone
Two years before, she had responded to Edmund Burke’s conservative Reflections on the Revolution in France with her own A Vindication of the Rights of Men. Her daughter, Mary Shelley, is famous as the author of Frankenstein. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797)
She turned her attention to women’s rights. She was older than many of the other prominent delegates to the Seneca Falls Convention, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, whom she mentored. Lucretia Mott (1793–1880)
She briefly served as the first president of the American Equal Rights Association. She was also one of the Quakers who founded Swarthmore College. Lucretia Mott (1793–1880)
When she attended the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, the male delegates excluded her and the other female delegates from the convention and made them sit in a segregated area. Lucretia Mott (1793–1880)
She was already well known as an abolitionist speaker when she attended the 1851 Ohio Women’s Rights Convention and declared that she had “as much muscle as any man” in her most famous speech, “Ain’t I a Woman?” Sojourner Truth (1797–1883)
A utilitarian philosopher who comes up in quiz bowl most often in conjunction with his works On Liberty (1859) and Utilitarianism (1863) John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)
He makes this list, however, because he wrote one of the most influential philosophical defenses of women’s rights in The Subjection of Women (1869). John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)
The husband and wife did write several essays together, including a tract advocating women’s suffrage titled The Enfranchisement of Women (1851), and Mill recognized his wife as a major contributor to all his greatest works. John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) and Harriet Taylor Mill (1807–1858)
Based the text of her declaration on the Declaration of Independence; it included the line, “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902)
She was a close collaborator for many years with Susan B. Anthony. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902)
Together, in 1868, she and Stanton founded a journal called The Revolution, which was dedicated to promoting women’s rights. Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)
The following year, Stanton and her formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)
In 1872, Anthony gained fame when she was arrested for voting in the presidential election. She defended herself by quoting the Fourteenth Amendment, but she was convicted. Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)
Her protests frequently got her arrested, and while in jail she and other suffragettes often went on hunger strikes. Initially, prison officials brutally force-fed the hunger-striking suffragettes. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)
In 1913, Parliament passed the Cat and Mouse Act, which provided for hunger strikers to be released from jail and re-arrested after they regained their health. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)
As a result of the advocacy of her and others, Parliament began to grant voting rights to women in 1918. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858–1928)
As a young nurse living in New York City, she wrote columns about sexual education for the New York Call titled “What Every Mother Should Know” and “What Every Girl Should Know.” Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)
She gave up nursing after one of her patients died of a self–induced abortion, and instead dedicated herself to educating women about contraception. Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)
In 1914, she began writing a newsletter called The Woman Rebel, in part to challenge the Comstock law, which prohibited the sending of “obscene” texts by mail, since she considered education about contraception to be an issue of free speech. Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)
An author who comes up in quiz bowl most often because of her novels, especially Mrs. Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927). Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)
She makes this list, however, because of her essay A Room of One’s Own (1929), in which she argued that a woman must have money and space in order to write and express herself. Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)
She famously created the character of Judith Shakespeare, William Shakespeare’s imagined sister, who could not achieve the status of her brother because she did not have the same access to education. Also addressed these themes in Three Guineas (1938). Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)
The Second Sex contains the famous line, “One is not born a woman, but becomes one.” The book is divided into two parts, titled “Facts and Myths” and “Lived Experience.” Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
One fact about her often mentioned in quiz bowl questions is that she was a lover of Jean-Paul Sartre. Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
She is often considered one of the pioneers of “second-wave” feminism, which emphasizes sexuality, the workplace, and other forms of inequality over the first-wave focus on voting and property rights. Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)
writer and activist best known as the author of The Feminine Mystique (1963) and as the most prominent co-founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW) Betty Friedan (1921–2006)
She labeled this general unhappiness “the problem with no name.” She then began writing The Feminine Mystique, in which she argued that being a housewife is unfulfilling and advocated for women to seek education and work outside the home. Betty Friedan (1921–2006)
Having had an abortion herself, she became a prominent advocate of abortion rights. She worked as a writer for New York magazine when she founded Ms., a feminist magazine devoted to women’s issues. Gloria Steinem (b. 1934)
The magazine also popularized the use of the title “Ms.” to address women regardless of marital status. Gloria Steinem (b. 1934)
She also wrote the book Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions (1983), and the phrase “a woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle” is often attributed to her. Gloria Steinem (b. 1934)
Advocated dress reform so that women could wear reasonable clothes; the pants known as “bloomers” were named after her. Amelia Bloomer
Best known as an abolitionist, but he attended the Seneca Falls Convention and was (without his consent) nominated as Victoria Woodhull’s vice presidential candidate in 1872. Frederick Douglass
a journalist who advocated for women’s rights; she is best known for editing the transcendentalist journal The Dial. Margaret Fuller
a reformer and women’s rights advocate who wrote the lyrics to “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.” Julia Ward Howe
When he ran for president with the Liberal Party in 1848, he became the first presidential candidate to include women’s voting rights as part of his party’s platform. He was also a first cousin of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Gerrit Smith
best known as an opponent of lynching, but she was also a women’s rights crusader who agitated for the inclusion of black women in women’s groups such as the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Ida B. Wells
died when she ran in front of King George V’s horse at the Epsom Derby in 1913 with a “Votes for Women” banner Emily Davison
led the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, a more moderate organization than Emmeline Pankhurst’s Women’s Social and Political Union. Millicent Fawcett
attacked Diego Velázquez’s Rokeby Venus with a meat cleaver in 1914 to protest the arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst. Mary Richardson
advocated passage of the Equal Rights Amendment and was known for declaring that “a woman’s place is in the House — the House of Representatives.” Bella Abzug
wrote Pornography: Men Possessing Women (1979) to argue that pornography degrades women and leads to violence against women Andrea Dworkin
a sex-positive feminist who wrote Sex and the Single Girl and edited Cosmopolitan magazine for 32 years. Helen Gurley Brown
wrote The Female Eunuch (1970) to argue that traditional societal and family structures repress women. Germaine Greer
publicized the issue of sexual harassment in 1991 when she testified at Clarence Thomas’s Supreme Court confirmation hearings that he had harassed her. Anita Hill
wrote about the lives of Chinese women in The Woman Warrior (1975) Maxine Hong Kingston
was a poet most famous for writing “Diving into the Wreck” (1973). Adrienne Rich
wrote The Beauty Myth (1991) to argue that societal constructs of beauty punish women who cannot attain them. Naomi Wolf
Created by: Mr_Morman