Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

YGK Supreme Court

QuestionAnswer
Homer Plessy (an octoroon) bought a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railway. He sat in the whites-only car in violation of an 1890 Louisiana law mandating separate accommodations. Plessy v. Ferguson (Melville Fuller, 7-1, 1896)
This case established the principle of judicial review, the power of the court to nullify unconstitutional laws. Marbury v. Madison (John Marshall, 4-0, 1803)
Norma McCorvey (under the alias Jane Roe), a rape victim, sued Dallas County attorney Henry Wade for the right to an abortion. Roe v. Wade (Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973)
The suit was filed on behalf of Linda Brown, a third grader, who had to walk a mile to a blacks-only school when a whites-only school was much closer. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1954)
After the Second Bank of the United States began calling in loans owned by the states, Maryland passed a law taxing out-of-state banks. The federal bank refused to pay, so the state sued its Baltimore cashier, James McCulloch. McCulloch v. Maryland (John Marshall, 9-0, 1819)
This Tennessee citizen, sued the Tennessee secretary state, Joe Carr, claiming that the state's electoral districts had been drawn to grossly favor one political party. Baker v. Carr (Earl Warren, 6-2, 1962)
He was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida. Because his crime was not capital, the court declined to provide him with an attorney. Gideon v. Wainwright (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1963)
In 1963, Phoenix police arrested Ernesto Miranda on suspicion of kidnapping and rape; he subsequently confessed to those crimes. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
He was a slave purchased by John Emerson in the 1820s and who at various points lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, both of which prohibited slavery. In 1853, he sued his then-owner for his freedom. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
The Keating-Own Act prohibited the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor leading Roland Dagenhart to sue U.S. attorney Hammer in Charlotte since his two sons would be put out of work. Hammer v. Dagenhart (Edward Douglass White, 5-4, 1918)
The court ruled that the individual states had no authority in American Indian affairs. President Jackson ignored the decision. Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Thomas Gibbons and Aaron Ogden were partners in a steamboat business that ferried people between New York and New Jersey. Gibbons v. Ogden (John Marshall, author and Chief Justice, 6–0, 1824)
In 1879, Connecticut outlawed the use of contraception. In 1961, Estelle Griswold and Lee Buxton, who were directors of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, were charged with violating that ban after they opened a birth control clinic. Griswold v. Connecticut (William O. Douglas, Chief Justice Earl Warren, 7–2, 1965)
Writing for a unanimous court, Justice Holmes claimed the 1st Amendment does not protect speech that creates a “clear and present danger,” and “the most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting ‘fire’ in a theatre.” Schenck v. United States (1919)
Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924 was an anti-miscegenation law that criminalized marriages between whites and non-whites. Loving v. Virginia (1967)
In 1998, a false police report led Houston police to the apartment of John Lawrence; upon entering, deputies claimed they found Lawrence having sex with another man, Tyron Gardner Lawrence v. Texas (Anthony Kennedy, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, 6–3, 2003)
First Female Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (1981) appointed by Ronald Reagan
First Black Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall (1967) appointed by Lyndon B. Johnson
Longest serving justice William Douglas (1939-1975)
Longest serving Chief Justice John Marshall (1801-1835)
Current Supreme Court Justice John Roberts (2005) appointed by George W. Bush
Obama's Two Supreme Court Appointment Sonia Sotomayor (2009) and Elena Kagan (2010)
First Supreme Court Justice in the US John Jay (1789) appointed by George Washington
The Supreme Court held that the First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit corporation. Led to the creation of Super PACs Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
Supreme Court case legalizing gay marriage. Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
Supreme Court upholds the Affordable Care Act or "Obamacare" National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012)
President who suggested adding more justices to the court; ones that would approve his New Deal legislation constitutional. "Court Packing Plan" Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1937)
Only US President to become a Chief Justice William Howard Taft (1921) appointed by President Warren G. Harding
The main question of the case was whether the President has executive privileges that place him above the law. Supreme Court overruled these, forcing the president to turn over the Watergate tapes. United States v. Nixon (1974)
The Supreme Court case that invalidated as unconstitutional a provision of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) that authorized the President to approve codes of fair competition for the poultry industry & other industries. 1st blow to the New Deal Schechter Poultry v. US (1935)
He was convicted, but appealed to the Supreme Court against John Ferguson, a Louisiana judge. The court upheld the law provided that "separate but equal" facilities were provided. Plessy v. Ferguson (Melville Fuller, 7-1, 1896)
John Marshall Harlan issued a famous dissent claiming "Our constitution is color-blind." This was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Plessy v. Ferguson (Melville Fuller, 7-1, 1896)
On his final day in office in 1801, John Adams signed commissions for 42 federal judges (the so-called "midnight judges"). His successor, Thomas Jefferson, opted to not deliver most of the commissions. Marbury v. Madison (John Marshall, 4-0, 1803)
One appointee, William Marbury, sued the new secretary of state, James Madison, to force the delivery of his commission. The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the court original jurisdiction in such cases, but the Constitution did not. Marbury v. Madison (John Marshall, 4-0, 1803)
The court ruled that the Judiciary Act conflicted with the Constitution and was therefore void. Therefore Marbury's request was denied for lack of jurisdiction. Marbury v. Madison (John Marshall, 4-0, 1803)
When the case reached the Supreme Court, the plaintiff depended on the growing recognition of a "right to privacy" which began with the 1965 case of Griswold v. Connecticut. Roe v. Wade (Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973)
The court struck down state anti-abortion laws as "unconstitutionally vague," held that the word "person" in the Constitution "does not include the unborn," and legalized abortion in the first trimester. Roe v. Wade (Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973)
McCorvey later joined the pro-life movement and claimed that she was not actually raped and that she was pressured into filing the case by her ambitious attorney Sarah Weddington. Roe v. Wade (Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973)
Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall argued the case for the plaintiff. The court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were not constitutional. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1954)
A second case in 1955 required that desegregation proceed "with all deliberate speed" but Southern schools were notoriously slow in complying; it was not until 1970 that a majority had complied with the ruling. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1954)
The court ruled that the federal government had the right to establish the bank even though it was not expressly enumerated in the Constitution. McCulloch v. Maryland (John Marshall, 9-0, 1819)
It noted that since "the power to tax was the power to destroy," Maryland could not tax the bank without destroying federal sovereignty. McCulloch v. Maryland (John Marshall, 9-0, 1819)
The defendant argued that reapportionment issues were political, not judicial, matters, but the court disagreed and declared the issue justiciable before remanding the case to a lower court. Baker v. Carr (Earl Warren, 6-2, 1962)
Two years later, in Reynolds v. Sims, the court mandated the principle of "one man, one vote." Baker v. Carr (Earl Warren, 6-2, 1962)
He was convicted, sued Louie Wainwright, the director of the corrections office, and took his case to the Supreme Court. Gideon v. Wainwright (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1963)
The court overruled Betts v. Brady and held that the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments required appointed counsel in all trials. Gideon was retried and found innocent. The case is the subject of the book Gideon's Trumpet. Gideon v. Wainwright (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1963)
The court ruled that the federal government did not have the right to regulate child labor; Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a notable dissent focusing on the lack of proper state regulation. Hammer v. Dagenhart (Edward Douglass White, 5-4, 1918)
The case was overturned by the 1941 U.S. v. Darby Lumber Company case upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act. Hammer v. Dagenhart (Edward Douglass White, 5-4, 1918)
In 1795 the Georgia legislature corruptly sold land along the Yazoo River (now in Mississippi) to private citizens in exchange for bribes. Fletcher v. Peck (John Marshall, 6-0, 1810)
The legislators were mostly defeated in the next elections and the incoming politicians voided the sales. In the meantime, John Peck sold some of the land in question to Robert Fletcher, who then sued him, claiming that he did not have clear title. Fletcher v. Peck (John Marshall, 6-0, 1810)
The Supreme Court held that the state legislature did not have the power to repeal the sale. This was one of the earliest cases in which the Supreme Court struck down a state law. Fletcher v. Peck (John Marshall, 6-0, 1810)
This was not actually a Supreme Court case, but a federal court case heard by Chief Justice Roger Taney while "circuit-riding" when the court was not in session. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney, 1861)
Lieutenant John Merryman of the Maryland cavalry took an active role in evicting Union soldiers from Maryland following the attack on Fort Sumter. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney, 1861)
Abraham Lincoln declared a secret suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and had a number of opposition leaders, including Merryman, arrested. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney, 1861)
Taney found the president had acted unconstitutionally (only Congress can suspend the writ), but Lincoln simply ignored his ruling. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney, 1861)
Following the death of Robert Farquhar, his estate’s executor, Alexander Chisholm—who, like Farquhar, was a South Carolina resident—sued the state of Georgia to collect money Georgia owed Farquhar for goods it purchased during the American Revolution. Chisholm v. Georgia (No majority opinion, Chief Justice John Jay, 4–1, 1793)
Georgia claimed that sovereign immunity protected it from Chisholm’s suit. However, the Supreme Court held that Article III Section 2 gave citizens the right to sue a state, finding against Georgia. Chisholm v. Georgia (No majority opinion, Chief Justice John Jay, 4–1, 1793)
The Court’s ruling proved so controversial that it resulted in the 1794 passage of the Eleventh Amendment, which specifically prohibited U.S. or foreign citizens from filing a lawsuit against a state (with certain exceptions). Chisholm v. Georgia (No majority opinion, Chief Justice John Jay, 4–1, 1793)
Ogden had purchased a license granting him a monopoly under New York law. After the partners suffered a disagreement and split up, Gibbons applied for and received a federal permit to run a similar business. Gibbons v. Ogden (John Marshall, author and Chief Justice, 6–0, 1824)
Ogden sued Gibbons for violating Ogden’s monopoly. Gibbons v. Ogden (John Marshall, author and Chief Justice, 6–0, 1824)
In a unanimous decision, Marshall held that Congress’ interstate regulatory power under the Commerce Clause had “no limitations other than are prescribed in the Constitution.” Gibbons’ federal permit trumped Ogden’s state-granted monopoly. Gibbons v. Ogden (John Marshall, author and Chief Justice, 6–0, 1824)
The Supreme Court ruled that no African-American—slave or free—was a citizen of the United States, and that therefore he lacked standing to initiate a lawsuit in the first place. Dred Scott v. Sandford (Roger Taney, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1857)
In addition, the Court found the Missouri Compromise to be unconstitutional, holding that Congress lacked authority to prohibit slavery in any new territory that was not originally part of the United States. Dred Scott v. Sandford (Roger Taney, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1857)
He owned a set of Chicago grain elevators and charged oppressively high fees for their use. In 1871, the Illinois legislature passed a law setting maximum rates for grain storage. Munn v. Illinois (Morrison Waite, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1877)
n appeal to the Supreme Court, lawyers for the business claimed that the Illinois statute violated Fourteenth Amendment due process rights regarding private property. Munn v. Illinois (Morrison Waite, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1877)
Chief Justice Waite’s opinion upheld the Illinois law, and proclaimed that “when private property is devoted to a public use, it is subject to public regulation.” Munn v. Illinois (Morrison Waite, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1877)
The decision was a landmark in the history of government regulation of businesses, especially railroads. Munn v. Illinois (Morrison Waite, author and Chief Justice, 7–2, 1877)
Oregon laundry owner Curt Muller was fined for violating an Oregon law that limited the working hours of female employees; he appealed, claiming the law was an unconstitutional restriction of freedom of contract. Muller v. Oregon (David Brewer, Chief Justice Melville Fuller, 9–0, 1908)
Arguing on behalf of Oregon, future Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis invoked scientific evidence to support the notion that excessive working hours were deleterious to a woman’s health. Muller v. Oregon (David Brewer, Chief Justice Melville Fuller, 9–0, 1908)
Oregon’s statute was upheld on the grounds that the state had a compelling interest in protecting the health of its female workers. One side effect of the decision was the judicial justification of sex discrimination in legislation. Muller v. Oregon (David Brewer, Chief Justice Melville Fuller, 9–0, 1908)
The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited—among other things—any attempt to inhibit recruitment by the U.S. Armed Forces. Charles Schenck was a Socialist who opposed conscription and distributed literature urging readers to resist the draft. Schenck v. United States (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Chief Justice Edward White, 9–0, 1919)
Following his arrest and conviction, he appealed, claiming that his advocacy was protected speech covered by the First Amendment. Schenck v. United States (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Chief Justice Edward White, 9–0, 1919)
Writing for a unanimous court, Justice Holmes claimed the1st Amendment does not protect speech that creates a “clear and present danger,” & that “the most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting ‘fire’ in a theatre” Schenck v. United States (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Chief Justice Edward White, 9–0, 1919)
Justice Douglas’ majority opinion held that “specific guarantees in the Bill of Rights have penumbras,” and that “emanations” of those guarantees create a Constitutional “right to privacy” Griswold v. Connecticut (William O. Douglas, Chief Justice Earl Warren, 7–2, 1965)
The Constitution protects intensely personal decisions, such as the right of married couples to choose whether or not to use birth control. Connecticut’s law was struck down. Griswold v. Connecticut (William O. Douglas, Chief Justice Earl Warren, 7–2, 1965)
During his initial interrogation by police, Miranda was never informed of his Fifth or Sixth Amendment rights. Miranda v. Arizona (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 5–4, 1966)
Chief Justice Warren stated that prior to any questioning, a person must be warned that he has a right to remain silent. Miranda v. Arizona (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 5–4, 1966)
Chief Justice Warren stated that prior to any questioning, a person must be warned that any statement he does make may be used as evidence against him, and that he has a right to the presence of an attorney, either retained or appointed Miranda v. Arizona (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 5–4, 1966)
In 1958, Virginia residents Richard Loving (a white man) and Mildred Jeter (a woman of both African-American and Native American heritage) were married in Washington, D.C., which did not have such a statute. Loving v. Virginia (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 9–0, 1967)
After returning to their Virginia home, they were arrested and convicted under the Racial Integrity Act. Loving v. Virginia (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 9–0, 1967)
Struck down that Act as violating both the Equal Protection and Due Process clauses of the 14th Amendment Loving v. Virginia (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 9–0, 1967)
Chief Justice Warren wrote that the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual & cannot be infringed by the State. Loving v. Virginia (Earl Warren, author and Chief Justice, 9–0, 1967)
Both men were charged with homosexual conduct, still a misdemeanor in Texas. Lawrence v. Texas (Anthony Kennedy, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, 6–3, 2003)
Justice Kennedy’s majority opinion held that the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause protected a person’s “liberty” to engage in consensual homosexual activity, and declared the Texas law unconstitutional. Lawrence v. Texas (Anthony Kennedy, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, 6–3, 2003)
The decision in Lawrence overturned Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)—in which the court upheld a similar Georgia law—and has been cited as a key predecessor of both U.S. v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges. Lawrence v. Texas (Anthony Kennedy, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, 6–3, 2003)
Conservative justice who died in February 2016; prompting intense debate about whether outgoing President Obama had the right to nominate his replacement Antonin Scalia
President Obama's third nominee to the Supreme Court. He may never receive a Senate confirmation hearing. Merrick Garland
Created by: Mr_Morman