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YGK: Organelles

QuestionAnswer
The "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cell's DNA, which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. Nucleus
Machines that coordinate protein synthesis, or translation. They consist of several RNA and protein molecules arranged into two subunits. Ribosomes
The "mighty mitos" are the powerhouses of the cell. They are double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, processes that produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP. Mitochondria
A network of tube-like membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope that comes in rough (with ribosomes) and smooth (without ribosomes) varieties. Proteins undergo modifications and folding to yield the final, functional protein structures. Endoplasmic Reticulum
The stack of flattened, folded membranes that acts as the "post office of the cell." Here proteins from the ribosomes are stored, chemically modified, "addressed" with carbohydrate tags, and packaged in vesicles for delivery Golgi Apparatus
membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that break down proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. They are important in processing the contents of vesicles taken in from outside the cell. Lysosomes
Found only in plants and certain protists, they contains the green pigment chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis. Like the mitochondrion, they are a double-membrane-bound organelle, and it has its own DNA and ribosomes in the stroma. Chloroplasts
Found mainly in plants and protists, they are liquid-filled cavities enclosed by a single membrane. They serve as storage bins for food and waste. Vacuoles
Important organelles of motility, which allow the cell to move. Both contain a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules in cross section and are powered by molecular motors of kinesin and dynein molecules. Cilia and Flagella
Not found in plant cells, they are paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section. They are important in organizing the microtubule spindle needed to move the chromosomes during mitosis. Centrioles
The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. Nucleus
Commonly seen within it are dense bodies called nucleoli, which contain ribosomal RNA. In eukaryotes, the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope. Nucleus
They read the messenger RNA copy of the DNA and assemble the appropriate amino acids into protein chains. Ribosomes
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion forms folds called cristae [KRIS-tee], which are suspended in a fluid called the matrix. The mitochondrial matrix contains DNA and ribosomes. Mitochondria
It is crucial to maintain the integrity of the lysosomal membranes because the enzymes they contain can digest cellular components as well. Lysosomes
They contain grana, which are stacks of single membrane structures called thylakoids on which the reactions of photosynthesis occur. Chloroplasts
Contractile _____________ are important for freshwater protists to rid their cells of excess water that accumulates because of salt imbalance with the environment. Vacuoles
Created by: Mr_Morman