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Chapter 5 Terms

QuestionAnswer
CAS Latency (Column Access Strobe Latency) A method of measuring access timing to memory, which is the number of clock cycles required to write or read a column of data off a memory module.
Centrino A technology used by Intel whereby the processor,, chipset, and wireless network adapter are all interconnected as a unit, which improves laptop performance.
C-RIMM (Continuity RIMM) a placeholder module that fills a memory slot on the motherboard when the slot does not hold a RIMM in the order to maintain continuity.
DDR (DDR SDRAM) A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock.
DDR2 (DDR SDRAM) A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock. DDR2 is faster and uses less power than DDR
DDR3 (DDR SDRAM) A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock. DDR3 is faster and uses less power than DDR2.
DIMM A miniature circuit board installed on a motherboard to hold memory. DIMMs can hold up to 16gb of RAM on a single Module.
Direct Rambus DRAM A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module.
Direct RDRAM A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module.
Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM) A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock.
Double Sided A DIMM feature whereby memory chips are installed on both sides of a DIMM.
Dual Channel A motherboard feature that improves memory performance by providing two 64bit channels between memory and the chipset. DDR 2 and DDR3 DIMMS can use dual channels
Dual Ranked Double sided DIMMs that provide two 64bit banks. The memory controller accesses first one bank and them the other. Dual ranked DIMMS do not perform as well as single ranked DIMMs.
Dynamic Ram The most common type of system memory. Requires refreshing every few milliseconds.
ECC (Error Correcting code) A chipset feature on a motherboard that checks the integrity of data stored on DIMMs or RIMMs and can correct single-bit errors in a byte. More advanced ECC schemas can detect, but not correct, double-bit errors in a byte.
Graphics Processing unit (GPU) A processor that manipulates graphic data to form the images on a monitor screen. A GPU can be embedd3ed on a video card or on the motherboard or integrated within a CPU.
Hyper-Threading The Intel technology that allows each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
Hyper Transport The AMD technology that allows each logical processor within the processor package to handle an individual thread in parallel with other threads being handled by other processors within the package.
Level 1 Cache Memory on the processor die used as a cache to improve processor performance
Level 2 Cache Memory in the processor package but on the die, used as a cache or buffer to improve processor performance
Level 3 Cache Memory further from the processor core than level 2 cache but still on the processor package
Memory Bank The memory a processor addresses at one time. Today's processors use a memory bank that is 64bits wide.
Multi-Core Processing A processor technology whereby the processor housing contains two or more processor cores that operate at the same frequency but independently of each other.
Multiplier The factor by which the bus speed or frequency is multiplied to get the CPU clock speed.
Multiprocessing Two processing units installed within a single processor and first used by the Pentium processor.
Multiprocessor Platform a system that contains more than one processor. The motherboard has more than one processor socket and the processors must be rated to work in this multiprocessor environment.
Parity An error checking scheme in which a ninth, or "parity" bit is added. The value of the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 to provide an even number of ones for even parity and an odd number of ones for odd parity.
Parity Error An error that occurs when the number of 1's in the byte is not in agreement with the expected number.
Processor Frequency The frequency at which the CPU operates. Usually expressed in GHz.
Quad Channels Technology used by a motherboard and DIMMs that allow the memory controller to access four DIMMS at the same time.
Rambus A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module.
RAS Latency (Row Access Strobe) A method of measuring access timing to memory, which is the number of clock cycles required to write or read a row of data off a memory module.
RDRAM A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module.
RIMM A type of memory module developed by Rambus, Inc.
SDRAM II (DDR SDRAM) A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock.
SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module) An outdated miniature circuit board used to hold RAM. SIMMs held 8, 16, 32, or 64 MB on a single module. SIMMs have been replaced by DIMMs.
Single Channel The memory controller on a motherboard that can access only DIMM at a time.
Single Sided A DIMM that has memory chips installed on one side of the module.
SODIMM A type of memory module used in notebook/laptop computers that use DIMM technology. A DDR3 SODIMM has 204pins. a DDR2 or DDR has 200 pins. Older outdated SODIMMS can have 72 or 144pins.
Static RAM RAM chips that retain information without the need for refreshing, as long as the computer's power is on. They are more expensive than traditional DRAM
Synchronous DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) that is synchronized with the clock speed that the microprocessor is optimized for. This tends to increase the number of instructions that the processor can perform in a given time. The speed of SDRAM is rated in MHz
Thread Each process that the CPU is aware of; a single task that is part of a longer task or request from a program
Triple Channels When the memory controller accesses three DIMMs at the same time. DDR3 DIMMs support triple channeling.
X86 Processors An older processor that first used the number 86 in the modle number and processes 32 bits at a time.
X86-64 Bit Processor Hybrid processors that can process 32bits or 64bits of data at a time.