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Genetics Chapter 5

Interactions between genes

INDEPENDENT GENES Phenotypes and Example 9:3:3:1 Spotted Horse and Pepper color
EPISTASIS (definition) One gene masks or modifies the expression of the second gene
RECESSIVE EPISTASIS Phenotype and Example 9:3:4 Labrador Retrievers
DUPLICATE RECESSIVE EPISTASIS Phenotype and Example 9:7 Physa Snail color
DOMINANT EPISTASIS Phenotype and Example 12:3:1 Squash color
DOMINANT DUPLICATE EPISTASIS Phenotype and Example 15:1 Dominant chicken color
MODIFIER GENES Definition and Example Genes that interact with and affect the expression of another gene (Modify but do NOT mask) Cat color and Horse red pigmenting
SUPERIMPOSED MINOR GENES Example Spotting alleles prevent pigments from reaching some hairs S allele on cats, dogs and horses (more on cats and dogs, less on horses)
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Types of traits and Examples Sex-influenced and sex-limited traits (male pattern baldness) Temperature-sensitive traits (Himalayan rabbits and cats)
PLEIOTROPY Definition and Examples A single gene affects multiple traits White eye mutation in Drosophila affects kidney function Lethal white foal disease in horses causes white coat and defective digestive system
POLYGENIC TRAIT Definition and Examples A single trait is affected by multiple genes Eye color in drosophila controlled by 100 different genes Human height
CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE Definition and Example Phenotype of offspring determined by genes inherited only from the mother (inherit mitochondria from mother) Leaf color of four o'clock plants
MATERNAL EFFECTS Definition and Example Phenotype of offspring determined by products (mRNAs) from mother's genes Shell coiling in Limnaea
GENOMIC IMPRINTING Definition and Types Genes whose expression is affected by the sex of the transmitting parent paternally imprinted=maternally expressed maternally imprinted=paternally expressed
GENOMIC IMPRINTING How? Results from methylation differences that arise during gametogenesis Heavy methylation inactivates either maternal or paternal allele (epigenic modification)
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE Definintion and Example All three genotypes have different phenotypes Chicken color, eggplant color, flower color
CO-DOMINANCE Definition and Example Traits associated with BOTH alleles seen in heterozygote (NOT actually dominance) MN and ABO blood proteins
Number of possible genotypes (Due to multiple alleles) genotypes=n(n+1)/2 n=number of different alleles at a given locus
ALLELE SERIES Definition and Example Alles taht produce alternative phenotypes can have serial dominance relatinships C color in rabbits, mice, cats (full-color>part-colored>heat-sensitive>albino)
RECESSIVE LETHAL Definition and Examples Offspring homozygous for lethal allele die 1:2 phenotype, no recessive homozygote Yellow color in mice and Tail-less cats
EARLY LETHAL One class of offspring in crosses is missing
POSTNATAL LETHAL Definition and Example Incomplete skew in birth ratio Spotting (Ov gene) in horses Ratio NOT 1:2:1 or 1:2
DOMINANT LETHAL Definition and Example NO embryonic dominant lethals known because all carriers would die and allele would be lost only detectable if death after reproductive age Huntington's disease in humans
EXPRESSIVITY Definition and Example Extent to which genotype is expressed in an individual (how much phenotype you see) Horse or dog spots (how big)
PENETRANCE Definition and Example Percent of individuals with genotype who show phenotype at all (whether or not you see the phenotype) Polydactyly
Created by: kosmorla
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