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YGK Particles

YGK Classes of Particles

1 of the classes of "fundamental particles" (meaning that they cannot be broken down into smaller particles) They have 6 flavors: the electron, the muon, the tauon, the neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tauon neutrino Leptons
another class of fundamental particle. They also come in six flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top (sometimes, "truth"), and bottom (sometimes, "beauty") Quarks
composite (i.e., non-fundamental) particles made from three quarks. The most common examples are the proton and neutron Baryons
Composite particles generally made from a quark & an anti-quark The quark and anti-quark must have the same color (such as red and anti-red) so that the resulting meson is colorless (or "white") Mesons
Particles with half-integral spin. Spin is a form of "intrinsic angular momentum" which is possessed by particles as if they were spinning around their axis (but, in fact, they aren't) Fermions
Particles with integral spin. The spin of a composite particle is determined by the total spin (i.e., the component of its intrinsic angular momentum along one axis) of its particles. Bosons
Any particles made out of quarks (alternatively, any particle affected by the strong nuclear force). Generally, this means the baryons and the mesons. Hadrons
The fundamental bosons that carry the forces of nature. That is, forces result from particles emitting and absorbing gauge bosons Gauge Bosons
The gauge bosons that carry the strong nuclear force and bind hadrons together. Gluons
an older name that was used for the "internal parts" of hadrons before the discovery and widespread acceptance of the quark model Partons
The three neutrinos are neutral (and were once thought to be massless), while the other three have a charge of -1. Leptons
All neutrinos are fermions and the total number of leptons is conserved (counting regular leptons as +1 particle and anti-leptons as -1 particle). Leptons
This word comes from the Greek for "light" (as in "not heavy"), even though the muon and tauon are fairly massive. Leptons
The up, charm, and top quarks have a charge of +2/3, while the down, strange, and bottom have a charge of -1/3. All quarks are fermions and they combine in pairs to form mesons and in triples to form baryons. Quarks
The enormous mass of the top quark (178 GeV) made it difficult to create in particle accelerators, but its discovery in 1995 confirmed an essential element of the "Standard Model" of particle physics. Quarks
The name "quark" comes from the line "Three quarks for Muster Mark" in Finnegans Wake that appealed to Murray Gell-Mann. The study of quarks (and the strong nuclear force) is quantum chromodynamics. Quarks
The study of quarks (and the strong nuclear force) Quantum Chromodynamics
The most common examples are the proton (two up quarks and one down quark) and the neutron (two down quarks and one up). Baryons
All baryons are fermions. Quarks possess a characteristic called "color" (which has nothing to do with visual color) which can be either red, green, or blue (which are arbitrary names). Baryons
A baryon must have one quark of each color so that the "total color" (analogous to mixing red, green, and blue light) is colorless (i.e., "white"). Baryons
The word "baryon" comes from the Greek for "heavy." The total number of baryons is conserved (again, counting anti-baryons as -1). Baryons
There are dozens of examples including the pion, kaon, J/Psi, Rho, and D Mesons
All mesons are baryons
It is also possible to make mesons out of two (or more) quarks and the same number of anti-quarks, but this kind of particle (a "tetraquark") is rare, both in nature and in quiz bowl. Mesons
The values cited for spin are not (usually) the real magnitude of that angular momentum, but the component of the angular momentum along one axis. Fermions
Quantum mechanics restricts that component to being n/2 times Planck's constant divided by 2 pi for some integer n. If n is even, this results in "integral" spin, if it is odd, it results in "half-integral" spin. Fermions
Note that the exact value of the spin itself is a real number; it's the multiplier of h/2pi that determines whether it is "integral" or not. Fermions
The name for this particle comes from that of the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi. Fermions
The most significant thing about these particles is that they are subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two fermions can have the same quantum numbers (i.e., same state). Fermions
All particles are either bosons or fermions
The name for this particle comes from that of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. boson
All of these particles are colorless (in the sense of the combined color of their constituent quarks). The name of this particle comes from the Greek for "thick." Hadron
These particles are sometimes called "vector bosons" Gauge Bosons
The name comes from the role of "gauge theories" in describing the forces Gauge Bosons
strong nuclear force is carried by Gluons
the weak nuclear force is carried by the W, Z-, and Z+ particles
the electromagnetic force is carried by the photon
gravity is carried by the (as yet unobserved) graviton
have no charge and no mass, but do have color (in the sense of quarks). This color cannot be observed directly because the gluons are part of the larger hadron gluons
The name comes from their role in "gluing" quarks together. gluons
Models based on partons are still used but, for the most part, it was determined that partons were quarks and the term is rarely used at the high school level except in historical contexts. Partons
Created by: Mr_Morman