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PC Service Upgrade

Chapter 1 Terms

QuestionAnswer
4-Pin motherboard auxilary connector Connector on the motherboard used to provide additional power to the processor other than that provided by the P1 Connector.
8-Pin motherboard auxilary connector A connector on the nmotherboard used to provde additional power to the processor other than that provided by the P1 connector or the earlier 4-pin auxiliary connector.
20-Pin P1 Connector Used by an older ATX power supply and motherboard. Provided +3.3 volts, +5 volts, +12volts, -12volt and rarely used -5volts.
24-Pin P1 Connector Used by ATX V. 2.2 power suply and motherboard. Provides additional power for PCI Express Slots.
Alternating Current (AC) Current that cycles back and forth rather than traveling in only one direction.
AMP A measure of electrical current.
Antistatic Bags Static sheilding bags that new computer components are shipped in.
Antistatic Gloves Gloves designed to prevent an ESD between you and a device as you pick it up and handle it.
Antistatic Wrist Strap A strap you an wear around your wrist that is attached to the computer case, ground mat, or another ground so that ESD is discharged from your body before you touch sensitive components.
ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) The most common form factor for PC systems presently in use, orignally introduced by Intel in 1995. ATX motherboards and cases make better use of space and resources than the earlier AT form factor.
ATX 12V Power supply An ATX version 2.1 power supply that provides a 12volt power cord with a 4pin connector to be used by the auxiliary 4-pin power connector on motherboards used to provide extra power for processors.
Audio Port Port used to connect speakers or microphone. Enables the ability to listen to sounds through connected speakers or create sounds through a connected microphone.
Berg Power Connector Used supply power to a floppy disk drive.
BIOS Basic Input Output System. Firmware that can control much of a computer's input/output functions, such as communication with a connected keyboard and mouse.
Bios Setup The program in System BIOS that can change the values in CMOS RAM.
Central Processing Unit CPU. Also called microprocessor or processor. The Component where almost all processing of data and instructions takes place. CPU receives data input, processes information and executes instructions.
Class C Fire Extinguisher A fire extinguisher rated to put out electrical fires.
CMOS setup The program in System BIOS that can change the values in CMOS RAM.
DB-15 Port a 15 pin female port that transmits analog video.
Desktop Case A computer case that lies flat and sometimes serves double-duty as a monitor stand.
DIMM Dual inline memory module. a miniature circuit board installed on a motherboard to hold memory. DIMMS can hold up to 16gb of RAM on a single module.
Direct Current Current that travels in only one direction. The type of electricity provided by batteries. Computer power supplies transform AC to low DC.
Display Port A port that transmits digital video and audio and is slowly replacing VGA and DVI ports on personal computers.
Dual Voltage Selector Switch A switch on the back of the computer case (power Supply) where you can switch the input voltage to the power supply between 115v or 220v. depending on what country the computer is being used in.
DVI Digital Video Input. A port that transmits digital or analog video.
Electrostatic Discharge ESD - Another name for static electricity, which can damage chips and destroy motherboards, even though it might not be felt, seen, or heard.
ESD Gloves Gloves designed to prevent an ESD between you and a device as you pick it up and handle it.
ESD Mat A mat that dissipates ESD and is commonly used by technicians who repair and assemble computers at thier workbenches or in an assembly line.
ESD Strap A strap you an wear around your wrist that is attached to the computer case, ground mat, or another ground so that ESD is discharged from your body before you touch sensitive components.
Ethernet Port A port used by a network cable to connect the wired Network.
Expansion Card A circuit board inserted into a slot on the motherboard to enhance the capability of the computer.
External SATA A standard for external drives based on SATA that uses a special extenal shielded SATA cable up to 2 meters long. eSATA is up to 6 times faster that USB or FireWire.
Field Replaceable Unit A component in a computer or device that can be replaced with a new component without sending the computer or device back to the manufacturer.
FireWire Port A port used for high-speed multimedia devices such as camcorders. Also called IEEE1394 Port.
Firmware Software that is permanently stored in a chip. The BIOS on a motherboard is an example.
Floppy Disk Drive A drive that can hold either a 5 1/2" or 3 1/4" inch floppy disks.
Floppy Drive A drive that can hold either a 5 1/2" or 3 1/4" inch floppy disks.
Form Factors A set of specifications on the size, shape, and configuration of a computer hardware component such as a case, power supply or motherboard.
Ground Bracelet A strap you an wear around your wrist that is attached to the computer case, ground mat, or another ground so that ESD is discharged from your body before you touch sensitive components.
Ground Mat A mat that dissipates ESD and is commonly used by technicians who repair and assemble computers at thier workbenches or in an assembly line.
Hard Disk Drive The main secondary storage device of a computer. 2 technologies are currently sued by hard drives. magnetic and solid state.
Hard Drive The main secondary storage device of a computer. 2 technologies are currently sued by hard drives. magnetic and solid state.
HDMI High Definition Multimedia Interface. A digital audio and video interface standard currently used on televisions and other home theater equipment and expected to ultimately replace DVI.
Heat Sink A piece of metal, with cooling fins, that can be attached to or mounted on an integrated chip (such as the cpu) to dissipate heat.
IEEE1394 Port Commonly known as FireWire Port. A port used for high-speed multimedia devices such as camcorders.
Internal Comonents The main components installed in a computer case.
Inverter A device that converts DC to AC.
Joule A measure of work or energy. One joule of energy produces one watt of power for one second.
Loopback Plug A device used to test a port in a computer or other device to make sure the port is working and might also test the throughput or speed of the port.
Main Board The main board in a computer. CPU ROM chips, DIMMS, RIMMS and Interface cards are plugged into the main board. Also referred to as Motherboard and system board
Material Safety Data Sheet A document that explains how to properly handle substances such as chemical solvents; it includes information such as physical data, toxicity, health effects, first aid, storage, disposal, and spill procedures.
MicroATX A version of the ATX form factgor. Addresses some new technologies that were developed after the original introduction of ATX.
Microprocessor Also called central processing unit or processor. The Component where almost all processing of data and instructions takes place. CPU receives data input, processes information and executes instructions.
Modem Port A port used to connect dial-up phone lines to computers.
Molex Power Connector A 4-pin power connector used to provide power to a PATA hard drive or optical drive.
Motherboard The main board in a computer. CPU ROM chips, DIMMS, RIMMS and Interface cards are plugged into the main board. Also referred to as Main Board and system board
Multimeter A device used to measure the various attributes of an electrical circuit. Most common measurements are voltage, current, and resistance.
Network Port A port used by a network cable to connect the wired Network.
Ohm The standard unit of measurement for electrical resistance. Resistors are rated in Ohms.
Parallel ATA An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80 pin connector.
Parallel Port An outdated female 25-pin port on a computer that transmitted data in parallel, 8bits at a time, and was usually used with a printer. Names for parallel ports are LPT1 and LPT2. Parallel ports have been replaced by USB ports.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect. A bus common to desktop computers that uses a 32-bit or 64bit data path. Several variations of PCI exist. one or more notches on a PCI slot keep the wrong PCI cards from being inserted in the PCI slot.
PCI Express The latest evolution of PCI, which is not backward-compatable with earlier PCI slots and cards. PCIe slots come in seveal sizes, including PCIe x1, PCIe x4, PCIe x8, and PCIe x16.
PCIe Power Connector An auxillary connector used for extra power to expansion cards such as a video card. Can be 6-pin or 8-pin.
POST Power On Self Test. A self diagnostic program used to perform a simple test of the CUP, RAM and various I/O devices. the POST is performed by startup BIOS when a computer is first turned on and before the operating system is launched.
POST Card A test card installed in a slot on the motherboard that is used to help discover and report computer errors and conflicts that occur when a computer is first turned on and before the operating system is launched.
POST Diagnostic Card A test card installed in a slot on the motherboard that is used to help discover and report computer errors and conflicts that occur when a computer is first turned on and before the operating system is launched.
Power Supply A box inside the computer case that receives power and converts it to provide power to the motherboard and other installed devices.
Power Supply Tester A device that can test the output of each power cord coming from a power supply.
Processor Also called microprocessor or Central Processing Unit (CPU). The Component where almost all processing of data and instructions takes place. CPU receives data input, processes information and executes instructions.
PS/2 Port A round 6-pin port used by a keyboard or mouse.
RAM Random Access Memory. memory modules on the motherboard containing microchips used to temporarily hold data and programs while the CPU processes both. Information in RAM is lost when the PC is turned off.
RJ-11 Registered Jack - 11. A phone line connection or port found on modems, telephones, and house phone outlets.
RJ-45 Registered Jack - 45. A port that looks like a large phone jack and is used by twisted pair cable to connect to a wired network adapter or other hardware device.
Rectifier An electrical device that converts AC to DC. A computer power supply contains a rectifier.
S-Video Port A 4-pin or 7-pin round video port that sends 2 signals over the cable, one for color and the second for brightness. Is used by some high end TV's and video equipment.
S/PDIF sound port Sony-Phillips Digital Interface. A port that connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital audio output and the best signal quality.
SATA power connector A 15-pin flat power connector that provides power to SATA devices.
Self Grounding A method to safeguard against ESD that involves touching the computer case or power supply before touching a compnent in the computer case.
Serial ATA An ATAPI interface standard that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable and is easier to configure than PATA systems.
Serial Port A male 9-pin or 25pin port on a computer system used by slower I/O devices such as a mouse or modem. Data travels serially, one bit at a time, through the port. Sometimes configured as COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4.
Startup BIOS Part of system BIOS that is responsible for controlling the computer when it is first turned on. Startup BIOS gives control over to the OS once it is loaded.
Static Electricity An imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge
Surge suppressor An appliance/device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes. A surge suppressor attempts to limit the voltage supplied to an electric device by either blocking or by shorting to ground any unwanted voltages above a safe threshold.
System BIOS BIOS located on the motherboard that is sued to control essential devices before the OS is loaded.
System Board The main board in a computer. CPU ROM chips, DIMMS, RIMMS and Interface cards are plugged into the main board. Also referred to as Motherboard and Main Board.
Thunderbolt A port that transmits both video and data on the same port and cable. The port is shaped the same as the display port devices.
Tower Case The largest type of personal computer case. Tower cases stand vertically and can be as high as two feet tall. They have more drive bays and are a good choice for computer users who anticipate making significant upgrades.
Transformer An electrical device that changes the ratio of current to voltage. A computer power supply is basically a transformer and a rectifier.
Trip Hazzard Loose cables or cords in a traffic area where people can trip over them.
USB Port Universal Serial Bus port. A type of port designed to make installation and configuration of I/O devices easy, providing room for as many as 127 devices daisy-chained together.
VGA Port Video Graphics Adapter/Array. a 15pin analog video port popular for many years.
Video Memory Memory used by the video controller. The memory might be contained on a video card or be part of system memory. When part of system memory, the memory is dedicated by Windows to video.
Volt A measure of potential difference in an electrical circuit.
Watt The unit of electricity used to measure power.