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Lecture 3.1

Element 3- Physiology

QuestionAnswer
What are the four cell types? Nerve, Muscle, Epithelial, Connective tissue cells.
What is the role of a nerve cell? Specialised cells which transmit information in the form of electrical signals
Explain the role of the neurone membrane. The membranes carry electrical charges and can receive information from the outside environment e.g.. light in the eye or temperature on the skin
Why isn't ATP an acid buffer It's an acid in itself
What is a tissue? An association of similar cells which perform similar function(s)
What is an organ? An association of tissues which combine to perform specific functions of the body. Organs are the structural units of the body
Explain the role of muscle cells Elongated cells specialised on generating mechanical forces. There membranes carry electrical charges (similar to nerve cells)
What are the three types of muscle cells? Which one is controlled by the somatic nervous system? Smooth, cardiac, skeletal. Skeletal is controlled by the somatic nervous system
What are the roles of epithelial cells? 1. Separate the body from the external environment 2. Transport ions, organic molecules and water from one side to another. 3. Can form glands
What is a gland? What is its role? Specialised structure which secretes various products either to the outside of the body (exocrine glands) or into the blood stream (endocrine glands)
What are connective tissue cells? Typically- widely scattered cells embedded in non-cellular material.
What is the definition of absorption? Intake of various molecules into the blood from the lumen e.g. water, nutrients in the gastro- intestinal tract
What is the definition of secretion? Trnasportation into the lumen e.g.. HCl in the stomach
What is the definition of filtration? Moment of small molecules through cellular molecular sieves, such as the kidneys. These are physical openings that allow molecules through.
What is the definition of reabsorption Some materials may be first filtered/ secreted but then retrieved from the GI tract or kidneys. e.g. water in the kidneys
What does homeostasis mean? Maintenance of constant (static) conditions of the internal environment.
Explain the percentages of inter and extra cellular fluid in the body The body is: 40% solids, 60% fluids The fluids are: 65% intercellular, 35% extracellular The extracellular fluids are: 80% interstitial, 20% plasma
Created by: macdonkr