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Stack #2091777

The basic descriptors for vowels HAR – Height – Advancement – Rounding Plus one more
the description of which sounds can occur together in a real word or syllable of a language Phonotactics
Most lax vowels appear in closed syllable – ɪ, ɛ, ʊ, ʌ , æ, – bit, bet, put, but, bat, sit, set, sat, soot
Tense vowels can appear in open syllable e.g., see, so, sue, saw
Tense vowels can appear in closed syllable too seat, boot
produced with greater muscle contrac/on than lax vowels Tense vowels
Acoustic result of the tense vs. lax dimension is duration
The vowels with more extreme tongue position and greater duration tense vowels
The vowels with less extreme tongue position and shorter duration lax vowels
a tense vowel is longer than a lax vowel of a similar height /i/ longer than /I/ /u/ longer than /ʊ/ /ej/ longer than /ɛ/
An exception to the ‘lax vowels shorter than tense’ is /æ/
Most vowels can be identified by answering four questions: 1. Is the vowel front or back? 2. Is the vowel high or low? 3. Is the vowel tense or lax? 4. Is the vowel a monophthong (“pure vowel”) or diphthong?
Classifying Vowels • Tongue height: - High, Mid, Low • Frontness - Front, Central, Back • Lip rounding - Rounded, Unrounded
Classifying Consonants • Manner: - Stop, Frica/ve, Affricate, Nasal, Glide & Liquid • Place: - Labial, Labiodental, Dental, Alveolar, Palatal, Velar, GloQal • Voicing - Voiced, Voiceless
Sonorants Nasals, Liquids, Glides Similar to vowels Characterized mainly by formant frequencies – Have a periodic laryngeal source (all voiced)
Obstruents Blocked or restricted airflow May be voiced or voiceless
Consonant Classification 1 Sonorants & Obstruents
Consonant Classification 2 Voicing
Voiced Obstruents with supra glottal noise
Sonorants without supra glottal noise source
built-up pressure released→ transient noise Stop bursts
air forced through a narrow channel becomes turbulent → sustained noise Fricatives
/h/ noise, aspiration Aperiodic laryngeal source
Tongue tip raised toward alveolar ridge (superior longitudinal muscle) Liquids [l] & [r]
[l] Tongue tip contact with alveolar ridge: Sides of tongue down: lateral - Intermediate F2, High F3
[r] No tongue-tip contact with alveolar ridge: - Often retroflexed - Often has lip rounding - Intermediate F2, Very low F3
Glide [ j ] • Produc/on similar to [i]: - High, front tongue position • Formant values similar to [i]: • Formant transi/ons vary depending on adjacent vowels High F3
Glide [w] • Production similar to [u]: - High, back tongue position, rounded lips • Formant values similar to [u]: Formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels Intermediate F3
Nasals [n] [m] [ng] Require open Velopharyngeal (VP) port → lowered velum - Nasal cavity forms a resonant chamber • Oral cavity blocked at same places of articulation as oral stops: - [m] = at lips - [n] = at alveolar ridge - [ŋ] = at soft palate
VP insufficiency the tissue to accomplish closure of the VP port is insufficient (e.g. cleg palate)
VP incompetence due to neurological etiologies (e.g., motor speech disorders - dysarthria)
VP incorrect learning: the result of sensory deficits (e.g., hearing impairment)
Nasal Murmur Opening of VP port creates a large resonant cavity → Low-frequency nasal resonance (200–300 Hz)
Acoustic characteristics of Nasals • Low amplitude - Anti-resonances attenuate energy in some frequencies - Large resonating space yields high damping - Soft walls of nasal cavities absorb energy
Production of Stops (when released) 1) Complete occlusion/closure in oral cavity (Stop gap) 2) Air pressure behind occlusion rises during closure 3) Pressure drops at release of blocked air 4) Release of air yields a transient noise source, also called a release-burst
Stop Gap the silence (or relative silence) during the stop occlusion (may not be evident if stop is in utterance-initial or utterance-final position)
Release Burst: a brief (10-35 ms) transient noise immediately following the release of a stop
Aspiration: period of voiceless sound following the release burst of voiceless stops occurring before vowels, liquids, or glides
Voice Onset Time: the time between the release of a stop consonant and the beginning of voicing for the following vowel
Formant Transitions: changing resonant frequencies that reflect the changing vocal tract shape as the speaker moves from one sound to the next
Categories of VOT • Voicing lead: voicing begins -75 to -25 before stop release • Zero onset: voicing begins 0 to +25 ms after stop release • Voicing lag: voicing begins +40 to +100 ms after stop release
Hypothesizes Locus (= constant starting frequency of F2) for each place of articulation
Types of Obstruents 1) Fricatives: Narrow constriction in vocal tract: [f], [θ], [s], [ʃ], [h], [v], [ð], [z], [ʒ] 2) (Oral) Stops: Short blockage of vocal tract [g] 3) Affricates: Stop releasing into a fricative → Stop + Fricative: [tʃ], [dʒ]
Types of Fricatives Labiodental [f], [v]: lips & teeth Linguadental (=Interdental) [θ], [ð]: tongue & teeth Alveolar [s], [z]: tongue & alveolar ridge Palatoalveolar [ʃ], [ʒ]: tongue & post-alveolar area Glottal [h]: opening between par-ally adducted VFs
Non-sibilants Labiodental [f], [v] Linguadental [θ], [ð]; (GloZal [h])
Sibibants Alveolar [s], [z] Palatoalveolar [ʃ], [ʒ]
Coarticulation The effect of overlapping gestures
Coarticulation the adjustment of ar0culator movements to target more than one speech sound simultaneously
Regressive Effects Preceding sound affected by following sound → Upcoming speech sound anticipated by preceding sound (e.g., vowel nasalizaton: hand [hæ
Progressive Effects Following sound affected by preceding sound → Effects seen in following sound(s) (e.g., voicing of –s: cats [kæts] vs. dogs [dɑgz])
segment a discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech.
suprasegment Characteristics of speech involving larger units than phoneme (or phonetic segment)
Prosodic Features Stress  Intonation  Dration ü Juncture
Characteristics of Stressed Syllables - Higher f0: increased VF tension, higher subglogal pressure - Greater intensity: higher subglogal pressure - Longer dura0on: more ar0culatory effort
Intonation Pitch contour of ugerance (= f0 changes over 0me); applies to phrases & sentences
Lexical Stress The degree of emphasis on individual syllables within words
Intrinsic Duration some sounds are naturally longer than others
Phonetic Context Syllable-final consonant voicing affects preceding vowel dura0on.
Juncture the boundaries between phone0c or phonological en00es such as phonemes, syllables, morphemes, words, intermediate prosodic phrases, intona0onal phrases.



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