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GMS401 Final Exam

All Definitions

Project Unique, large, one-time job requiring special activities to accomplish a specific objective in a limited time frame
Performance Goals For a project: keeping the project within schedule, budget, and quality guidelines
Matrix Organization An organizational structure that temporarily groups together specialists from different departments to work on special projects
Project Manager The person responsible for planning, scheduling, executing, and controlling a project from inception to completion, meeting the project's requirements and ensuring completion on time, within budget, and to the required quality standards.
Project Planning Analyzing the project into work packages and activities, estimating resources needed and durations, scheduling
(WBS) Work Breakdown Structure A hierarchical listing of what must be done during a project
Project Scheduling Determining the timing of activities of the project
PERT Program evaluation and review technique, used for scheduling and control of large projects
CPM Critical path method, used for scheduling and control of large projects
Precedence Network Diagram of project activities and their sequential relationships by use of arrows and nodes
Activity on arrow (AOA) Network in which arrows designate activities
Activity on Node (AON) Network in which nodes designate activities
Path A sequence of activities that leads from the start node to the end node
Critical Path The longest path from start to end; determines the expected project duration
Critical Activities Activities on the critical path
Path Slack Time Allowable slippage for a path; the difference between the length of the critical path
Deterministic Durations Durations that are fairly certain
Probabilistic Durations Durations that allow for variation
3-Point estimates method PERT/CPM when the activity durations are variable and are determined using three estimates: optimistic, most likely and pessimistic
Optimistic duration The length of time under the best conditions
Pessimistic Duration The length of time under the worst conditions
Most likely duration The most probable length of time
Beta Distribution A family of continuous positive distributions used to describe the inherent variability in activity durations
Project Execution Involves performance of activities planned
Project Control Comparing a project's progress against plans and taking corrective action if necessary
Gantt Chart A visual aid for loading, scheduling and control purposes
Housekeeping Maintaining the workplace clean and free of unnecessary things
Preventive maintenance Keeping equipment in good operating condition and replacing parts that have a tendency to fail before they actually do fail
Kanban Card that communicates demand for a batch of an item to the preceding work centre
Pull system Based directly on customer demand, a work centre pulls items from the preceding work centre as they are needed
Push system Based on MRP plan, a batch of items is made and pushed to the next work centre as it is completed
Andon A set of lights used at each workstation to signal problems or slowdowns
Jidoka Japanese term for quality at the source: avoid passing defective products to the following workstation, and stop and fix the problem
Autonomation Intelligent automation: if an abnormal situation arises, the machine automatically stops, preventing production of defective products
Poka-Yoke Any mechanism that helps an equipment operator avoid mistakes. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur
Takt Time The maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit. Also called cycle time
Lean Production JIT in a broad sense, is a philosophy of waste reduction and continuous improvement
Just in time (JIT) Production system in which processing and movement of parts/modules/work-in-process occur just as they are needed, usually in small batches
Skill/Knowledge Bonus Plan Rewarding workers who undergo training to increase their skills/knowledge
Output-based (piece rate) pay Compensation based on amount of output an employee products
Time-Based Pay Compensation based on length of time an employee has worked
Work sampling Technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker spends on each activity or is idle
Predetermined element times Published data based on extensive research on element times
Stopwatch time study Development of a standard time based on observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles
Standard Time The amount of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specified task, working at a sustainable rate, and using given methods, tools and equipment, raw materials, and workplace arrangement
Work Measurement Determining how long it should take to do a job
Ergonomics Fitting the job to the worker's capability and size
Simo Chart A chart that shows the elementary motions performed by each hand, side by side over time
Micro-motion study Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze
Motion economy principles Guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures
Motion Study Systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation or task
Worker-machine chart Used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle
Process chart Chart used to examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of material
Methods Analysis Breaks down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements and improves it
Self-directed teams Groups who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain decision and changes in their work
Job enrichment Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination
Job rotation Workers periodically exchange jobs
Job enlargement Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task
Specialization Focusing the job to a narrow scope
Job Design Specifying the content and method of a job
Percentage Idle Time 100 times sum of idle times per unit divided by actual number of workstation times cycle time
Precedence Network A diagram that shows the tasks and their precedence requirements
Cycle Time The maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit
Line balancing Assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the work stations have approximately equal time requirements
Group technology Grouping items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics into part families
Cellular Layout Layout in which different machines are arranged in a cell that can process times that have similar processing requirements
Process Layout Arranges production resources together according to similarity of function
Product Layout Arranges production resources linearly according to the progressive steps by which a product is made
Process Flow Diagram Shows the operations and movement of material through the operations
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) A system for linking a broad range of manufacturing and other activities through an integrating computer system
Flexible Manufacturing System A group of machining centres controlled by a computer, with automatic material handling and robots or other automated equipment
Robot A machine consisting of a mechanical arm, a power supply, and a controller
Numerically Controlled (N/C) Machines Machines that perform operations by following mathematical processing instructions
Automation Using machinery/equipment with sensing and control devices that enable it to operate automatically
Continous Process Used when a high volume of highly standardized output is required
Assembly line Production line where parts are added to a product sequentially
Production Line A sequence of machines/workstations that perform operations on a part/product
Repetitive process A type of process used when higher quantities of more standardized goods or services are needed
Batch process A type of process used when a moderate volume and variety of goods or services is desired
Job Shop A process type used when a low quantity of high-variety customized goods or services is needed
Make or Buy Decide whether to make a part or product in-house or buy it or a segment of production process from another company
Process Design Determining the form and function of how goods or services are produced
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) A structured approach that integrates the voice of the customer into product design
Design for Assembly (DFA) Focuses on reducing the number of parts in a product and on assembly methods and sequence
Design for Manufacturing (DFM) Takes into account the organization's manufacturing capabilities when designing a product
Computer Aided Design (CAD) Product design using computer graphics
Concurrent Engineering Bringing engineering design, manufacturing engineers, and staff from marketing, manufacturing, and purchasing together early in the design phase
Recycling Recovering materials for future use
Design for disassembly Design so that used products can be easily taken apart
Remanufacturing Refurbishing used products by replacing worn-out or defective components
Product Liability A manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product
Robust Design Design that can function over a broad range of conditions
Failure Situation in which a product, part, or system does not perform as intended
Reliability The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under normal conditions
Mass Customization Producing basically standardized goods or services but incorporating some degree of customization
Delayed Differentiation Producing, but not quite completing a product until customer preferences are known
Modular Design Parts are grouped into models that are easily replaced or interchanged. The product is composed of a number of modules or components instead of a collection of individual parts
Standardization Extent to which there is absence of variety in a part or product
Life Cycle Incubation, growth, maturity, saturation, and decline
Research and development (R&D) Lab scientists and engineers involved in creative work on a systematic basis to increase knowledge directed toward product and process innovation
Reverse engineering Dismantling a competitor's product to discover what it is composed of and how the components work, searching for own-product improvements
Product Design Determining the form and function of the product
Productivity A measure of productive use of resources, usually expressed as the ratio of output to input
Outsourcing Buying a part of a good/service or a segment of a production/service process from another company, a supplier
Time-Based competition Strategy that focuses on reduction of time needed to accomplish tasks
Operations Strategy The approach that is used to guide the operations function
Action plan A medium or short-term project to accomplish a specific objective, assigned to an individual, with a deadline and the resources needed
Tactics Medium-term plans used as components of a strategy
Values Shared beliefs of the organization's stakeholders
Vision Where the organization desires to be in the future
Mission Where the organization is going now
Competitive priorities The importance given to operations characteristics: cost, quality, flexibility and delivery
Order winners Purchasing criteria that case the organization to be perceived as better than the competition
Order qualifiers Purchasing criteria that customers perceive as minimum standards of acceptability to be considered for purchase
Key purchasing criteria The major elements influencing a purchase: price, quality, variety, and timeliness
Strategic Planning The managerial process that determines a strategy from eh organization
Strategy The long-term plans that determine the direction an organization takes to become or remain competitive
Competitiveness Ability and performance or an organization in the marketplace compared to other organizations that offer similar goods or services
Supply Chain A sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service
E-Commerce Use of the Internet and other electronic networks to buy and sell goods and services
Lean Production System that uses minimal amounts of resources to produce a high volume of high-quality goods with some variety
Total Quality Management Involving every employee in a continual effort to improve quality and satisfy the customers
Mass production System in which lower-skilled workers used specialized machinery to produce high volumes of standardized goods
Interchangeable parts Parts of a product made to such precision that they do not have to be custom fitted
Division of labour Breaking up a production process into small tasks so that each worker performs a small portion of the overall job
Craft Production System in which highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods
Pareto Phenomenon A few factors account for a high percentage of results achieved (80/20)
System A set of interrelated parts that must work together
Model An abstraction of reality; a simplified representation of something
Lead Time The time between ordering a good or service and receiving it
Value Added The difference between he cost of inputs and the value or price of outputs
Efficiency Operating at minimum cost and time
Effectiveness Achieving quality and responsiveness
Process A series of linked actions, changes or functions bringing about a result
Operations management The management of processes or systems that create goods and/or provide services
Reliability The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions. (1. when activated 2. for a given length of time)
Overdesign Enhance design to avoid failure
Design simplification Reduce number of components
Use redundancy in the design Providing backup components
Mean time to failure (MTTF) Average length of time before failure of a product of component
Mean time between failures (MTBF) Average time from the up time after a repair following a failure to the next failure
Availability The fraction of time a piece of equipment is expected to be available for operation
Learning Curves A graph that reflects the phenomenon that the time required to perform a task decreases with increasing repetitions
Learning Effect Time per unit decreases as the number of units produced increases
Statistical Quality Control Uses statistical techniques & sampling to monitor & test the quality of goods & services
Acceptance sampling Determines to accept or reject a product
Statistical process control Determines if process is operating within acceptable limits
Inspection The appraisal of goods/services against standards
Random variation Natural variations in the output of process, created from countless minor factors
Assignable variation A variation whose source can be identified
Control chart Monitors process output to distinguish between random and assignable variation. A time offered plot of sample statistics obtained from an ongoing process. Upper and lower control limits define the range of acceptable variation.
Control Limits The dividing lines between random and nonrandom deviations from the process mean
Type I Error Concluding that a process has changed when it has not
Type II error Concluding a process is in control when it is actually not
Design Specifications Range of acceptable values established by engineering design or customer requirements
Process variability Natural variability in a process
Process Capability Process variability relative to specification
Created by: 13rallie



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