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gen med terms

myocardium muscle that makes up the heart
endocardium c.t. that encloses the entire heart
pericardium attaches the endocardium to the thorax
coronary arteries branch from the base of the aorta to supply the entire myocardium
systole contraction phase
diastole atria and ventricles relaxed
stroke volume amount of blood pumped into aorta during a single ventricular contraction
cardiac output stroke volume x heart rate: volume of blood pumped per minute
erythrocytes (rbc) transport o2 remove co2
leukocytes (wbc) phagocytosis, mediate immune system response
thrombocytes (platelets) clotting
blood pressure pressure of blood against arterial walls, maintains perfusion of o2 into organs
myocardial ischemia myocardium deprived of oxygen resulting in chest pain (angina)
dyspnea shortness of breath; occurs when cardiac output decreases
fatigue reduction in the body's capability to perform work
palpitation senseation of skipped beats or the heart fluttering uncomfortably
arrhythmia disturbance of the electrical activity that controls the heartbeat which causes cardiac contractions of excessive pace or strenght (palpitations)
claudication impaired gait, occurs when blood flow to a lower limb is blocked
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces, occurs with chronic cardiac conditions or obstruction of veins or lymph vessels
Korotkoff sounds sounds used to determine bp
atherosclerosis arteries that have been pathologically narrowed
aneurysm deformed arteries
athletes heart general cardiac hypertrophy- enlargmenet of both ventricles due to adaptation to strenuous aerobic exercise
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathological enlrgment of the heart associated with an asymmetricl enlrgment of the left ventricular cavity-leading cause of SCD in young athletes
myocardial ischemia oxygen needed by myocardium exceeds oxygen in blood delivered by the coronary arteries
arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) fatty infiltration (penetration) and fibrosis of the myocardium of the right ventricle
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) deformity of mitral valve leaflets that prevents it from closing completely
paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia intermittently occuring very rapid heart rate at rest >150 bpm- defect in discharge pattern of SA node, atria, or AV node that causes drastic increase in heart rate
Q-T interval time it takes for ventricles to depolarize and repolarize
Wolfe-parkinson-White Syndrome accessory pathway between atria and ventricles conducts more rapidlyithan the AV node, and result is that one of the ventricles depolarizes slightly before the other
marfan Syndrome Connective tissue disorder associated with increased risk for scd, develop potentially fatal deformities in aorta
Commotio Cordis Sudden blows to the chest that occur during the vulnerable phase of cardiac repolarization that induce a severe ventricular arrhytmia
myocarditis inflammatory process of the cardiac muscle cells
generic drug copy of brand name drug whose patents have expired can sell for cheaper bc no experimental cost
enteral routes routes of admin that provide entry to the boyd by way of alimentary canal or digestive system (oral, rectal)
parenteral routes injection inhalation sublingual buccal and topical
enteric coating delays the release of medication until it reaches small intestine
extended release medication released over a longer period, contains more drug
buccal between cheek and gum
suppository common dosage form used to administer meds via rectum
pharmacokinetics physiological process of how the body acts on a drug (ADME)
bioavailability amount of drug that is actually available in the body's tissues
first pass effect occurs if drug is absorbed from the intestine into the liver before entering the systemic circulation
passive diffusion lipid soluble drugs diffuse more quickly and easily and are capable of passing through blood brain barrier to affect cns
active transport protein move drug across membrane
facilitated diffusion drug selectivity through binding of a protein
onset of action time it takes for drug to reach site of action
duration of action period of time when concentration levels are sufficient enough to proeduce a therapeutic effect
metabolism process by which drugs are inactivated and broken down into more water soluble metabolites in preparation for excretion
halflife time it takes for concentration to be reduced by one half after it has reached peak concentration
elimination process by which body rids itself of drug
pharmacodynamics process of how drug acts on the body
agonist drug that fits the receptor and initttates a mechanism similar to the endogenous compound
antagonist drug that fits receptor but fails to initiate or block mechanism
receptor theory of drug action agonists and antagonists
potency strenght of drug
steady state maintaing blood levels within the therapeutic range, achieved once the blood levesls from continued dosing matches the levls of excretion of a drug
agonistic interaction 2 drugs of same type taken together to add and increase overall effect
antagonistic effects 2 unrelated drugs to reduce effectivenss of oral drug
cox 1 (housekeeping) responsible for gi mucosal integrity, platelet aggregation, renal function
cox 2 (inflamatory gene) responsible for inflamation, pain, wound healing
penicilins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems inhibit synthesis of bacterias cell wall (bactericidal antibiotics)
tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglcosides disrupt normal protein synthesis
sulonamides inhibit an enzyme used to synthesize tetrahydrofolic acid within bacteria
staphylococcus aureus infection misuse of antibiotics has lead to increased incidence of antibiotic resistancce
h1 histamine respiratory tract
h2 histamine stomach
h3 histamine cerebrospinal fluid
1st generation h1 antihistamine lipid soluble, can cross blood brain barrier to affect cns (drowsiness)
2nd gen antihistamine less lipid soluble, not as drowsy, better for daytime
decongestants cause vacoconstriction of the blood vessls within the nasal passages to help reduce swelling of mucous membranes
bronchodilators used by individuals with asthma to relax bronchial spasms and expand airways
antiemetics used to treat nausea and vomiting (regulated in medulla)
antidarrheals used to treat symptoms of diarrhea, howerver don't generally treat underlying cause
bulk forming laxative made of a fiber or cellulose that swells once combined with fluid producing a thick substance that stimulates perisatalsis and pushes the intestinal content forward
osmotic laxatives function to increase peristalis by drawing water into the intestinal lumen
stimulant laxatives increase motility of bowels
antacids neutralize stomach acid and increase gastric pH
fungicidals disrupt cell membrane of fungus thus killing the fungal cell,
fungistatics prevent the fungal cell from replicating, allowing the immune system to mainage the infection
antiviral meds used to treat herpes and influenza infections prevent and reduce duratin and severity of the virus
deep somatic pain bone nerve muscle tendons ligaments arteries or joints
visceral pain internal organs
hyperplasia increase in nmber of cells in a tissue without chane in the rate of cell division or function (adaptaion to chronic increased metabolic demands)
metaplasia replacement of cells of one type with antoher in response to physical or chemical irritants
dysplasia cells adapt by changing to an abnormal cell type (cancer)
necrosis cell death
proliferative stage serves to close the tissue wond (scar)
remodeling stage overlaps proliferative: some tissue remodeling occurs while collagein is still being deposited to heal the damage. stops when structure is restored
hyperpnea rapid respiration
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteoplats produce osteocytes
osteoclats resorbe osteocytes
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
arthritis subtle joint instability and joint capsule inflammation
connective tissue collagen and elastin. heals with collagen only, loses flexibility after injury
epithelium lines int. ext surfaces of body
endothelium lines cardiovasuclar system
hemorrhage loss of large amounts of blood from vascular system
shock organs become deprived of blood borne nutrients and oxygen
septicemia presense of infection
Created by: jocbutch
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