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Operating Systems

Chapter 18 Terms

QuestionAnswer
Adware Software installed on a comuter that produces pop-up ads using your browser; the ads are often based on your browsing habits.
Antispyware Software Software used to remove spyware and andware
Antivirus software Utility programs that prevent infection or scan a system to detect and remove viruses.
Biometric Device An input device that inputs biological data about a person; the data can identify a person's fingerprint, hand print, face, voice, eyes and handwriting.
BitLocker Encryption A utility in Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise editions that is used to lock down a hard drive by encrypting the entire Windows volume and any other volume on the drive.
Boot Sector Virus An infectious program that can replace the boot program with a modified, infected verison, often causing boot and data retrieval problems.
Computer Infestation See Malicious Software. Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without the user's knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage to the data and software. Types of infestation include Trojan Horses, Worms, Adware, Spyware,
Degausser a Machine that exposes a storage device to a strong magnetic field to completely erase the data on a magnetic hard driver or tape drive.
Digital Certificate A code used to authenticate the source of a file or document or to identify and authenticate a person or organization sending data over a network, The code is assigned by a certificate authority such as VeriSign and includes a public key for encryption. A
Email Hoax An email message that is trying to tempt you to give out personal information or trying to scam you.
Encrypted File System A way to use a key to encode a file or folder on an NTSF volume to protect sensitive data. Because it is an integrated system service, EFS is transparent to users and applications.
Grayware A program that AV software recognizes to be potentially harmful or potentially unwanted. (AV and Anti-malware uses the term "PUP" Potentially Unwanted Program.)
Key Fob A device, such as a type of smart card, that can fit conveniently onto a keychain.
KeyLogger A type of spyware that tracks your key strokes, including passwords, chat room sessions, email messages, documents, online purchases and anything else you can type on your PC. The Text is logged into a text file and transmitted over the internet without
Lojack A technology by Absolute Software used to track the whereabouts of a laptop comptuer and if the computer is stolen, lock down access to the computer or erase data on it. The technology is embedded into BIOS of the laptop. (Side note, Lojack had its start
Malicious Software Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without the user's knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage to the data and software. Types of infestation include Trojan Horses, Worms, Adware, Spyware, Keyloggers, Browser hija
Malware See Malicious Software. Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without the user's knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage to the data and software. Types of infestation include Trojan Horses, Worms, Adware, Spyware,
Phishing A type of identity theft where a person is baited into giving personal data to a website that appears to be a reputable company with which the person has an account with. An email message with the intent of getting the user to reveal private data that c
Privacy Filter A device that fits over a monitor screen to prevent others from viewing the monitor from a wider angle
Quarantined Computer A computer that is suspected of infection and is not allowed to use the network.The computer is placed on a network dedicated to quarantined computers or is allowed access to certain network resources.
Retinal Scanning As part of the authentication process, some sistems use biometric data by scanning the blood vessels on the back of the eye. Considered the most reliable of all biometric data scanning.
RIFD Badge A badge worn by an employee and is used to gain entrance into a locked ara of a building. a radio freq. id token transmits the data to the system when the token is in range of a query device.
Rootkit a type of malicious software that loads itself before the OS boot is complete and can hijack internal Windows compnents so that it masks information Windows provides to user-mode utilities such as Windows Explorer or task manager.
RSA Tokens A type of smart card that contains authentication information.
Security Center A center in Windows Vista where you can confirm windows firewall, windows update, anti-malware settings including that of Windows Defender.
Shoulder Surfing Other people secretly peek at your monitor screen as you work to gain valuable information.
Smart Card Any small device that contains authentication information that can be keyed into a logon window or read by a reader to authenticate a user on a network.
Smart Card Reader a device tht can read a smart card used to authenticate a person onto a network.
Social Engineering The practice of tricking people into giving out private information or allowing unsafe programs into the network or computer.
Spyware Malicious software that installs itself on your computer to spy on you. it collects personal information about you that it transmits over the internet to web-hosting sites that intend to use the data for harm.
Strong Password A password that is not easy to guess.
Tailgating when someone who is unauthorized folliows the employee through a secured entrance to a room or building
Trojan A type of malware that tricks you into opening it by substituting itself for a legitimate program.
Virus A program that often has an incubation period, is infectious, and is intended to cause damage. can destroy data and prams or damage to a disk drive's boot sector.
Virus Definition a set of distinguishing characteristics of a virus and used by antivirus software to identify new viruses as they get into the wild. AKA Virus Signatures.
Virus Encyclopedia A database about viruses that is kept on the internet.
Virus Signature A set of distinguishing characteristics of a virus and used by antivirus software to identify new viruses as they get into the wild. AKA Virus Definition.
Windows Defender Antispyware utility included in Windows 7 and Vista.
Windows Firewall A personal firewall that protets a computer from intrusion and is automatically configured when you set your network location in the Network and Sharing Center.
Worm An infestation designed to copy itself repeatedly to memory, on drive space, or on a network until little space remains.