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CIT132 LAN new Text

Terms to study for CIT132 Final exam

802.11a supports speeds as high as 54 Mbps. Other supported data rates (which can be used if conditions are not suitable for the 54-Mbps rate) include 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 Mbps. The 802.11a standard uses the 5-GHz band and the OFDM transmission method.
802.11b supports speeds as high as 11 Mbps. However, 5.5 Mbps is another supported data rate. The 802.11b standard uses the 2.4-GHz band and the DSSS transmission method.
802.11g supports speeds as high as 54 Mbps. Like 802.11a, other supported data rates include 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 Mbps. operates in the 2.4-GHz band, which allows it to offer backward compatibility to 802.11b devices.
802.11n supports a variety of speeds, depending on its implementation. Although the speed of an 802.11n network could approach 300 Mbps (through the use of channel bonding), many 802.11n devices on the market have speed ratings in the 130 to 150-Mbps range.
access control list (ACL) Rules typically applied to router interfaces, which specify permitted and denied traffic.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) An ARP request is a broadcast asking for the MAC address corresponding to a known IP address. An ARP reply contains the requested MAC address.
administrative distance (AD) A routing protocol’s index of believability. Routing protocols with a smaller AD are considered more believable that routing protocols with a higher AD.
anycast An anycast communication flow is a one-to-nearest (from the perspective of a router’s routing table) flow.
application layer (OSI model) Layer 7 of the OSI model, it provides application services to a network. An important, and an often-misunderstood concept, is that end-user applications do not reside at the application layer.
application layer (TCP/IP stack) Addresses concepts described by Layers 5, 6, and 7 (that is, the session, presentation, and application layers) of the OSI model.
arp command Can be used in either the Microsoft Windows or UNIX environment to see what a Layer 2 MAC address corresponds to a Layer 3 IP address.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A Layer 2 WAN technology that inter-connects sites using virtual circuits. These virtual circuits are identified by a pair of numbers, called the VPI/VCI pair.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) Allows a networked device to selfassign an IP address from the network. Note that this address is only usable on the device’s local subnet (meaning that the IP address is not routable). availability The measure of a network’s uptime.
Basic Rate Interface (BRI) A BRI circuit contains two 64-kbps B channels and one 16-Kbps D channel. the two B channels can be logically bonded together into a single virtual circuit (by using PPP’s multilink interface feature) to offer a 128-kbps data path.
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) A legacy broadcast-based protocol used by networked devices to obtain IP address information.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) The only EGP in widespread use today. In fact, BGP is considered to be the routing protocol that runs the Internet, which is an interconnection of multiple autonomous systems
bus topology Typically, it uses a cable running through the area requiring connectivity, and devices to be networked can tap into that cable.
cable modem Attaches to the same coaxial cable (typically in a residence) that provides television programming. A cable modem can use predetermined frequency ranges to transmit and receive data over that coaxial cable.
cable tester A cable tester can test the conductors in an Ethernet cable.
carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) Used on an Ethernet network to help prevent a collision from occurring and to recover if a collision does occur. CSMA/CD is only needed on half-duplex connections.
central office (CO) A building containing a telephone company’s telephoneswitching equipment is referred to as a central office (CO). COs are categorized into five hierarchical classes.
circuit-switched connection A connection that is brought up on an as-needed basis. A circuit-switched connection is analogous to phone call, where you pick up a phone, dial a number, and a connection is established based on the number you dial.
classful mask A classful mask is the default subnet mask applied to Class A, B, and C IPv4 networks.
classless interdomain routing (CIDR) Shortens a classful subnet mask by removing right-justified 1s from a classful mask. As a result, CIDR allows contiguous classful networks to be aggregated. This process is sometimes called route aggregation.
client Defines the device an end-user uses to access a network. This device might be a workstation, laptop, smartphone with wireless capabilities, a tablet, or a variety of other end-user terminal devices.
client/server network In a client/server network, a dedicated server provides shared access to a resource (for example, files or a printer). Clients (for example, PCs) on the network with appropriate privilege levels can gain access to those shared resources.
client-to-site VPN Also known as a remote-access VPN, a client-to-site VPN interconnects a remote user with a site, as an alternative to dial-up or ISDN connectivity, at a reduced cost.
coaxial cable Also known as coax, a coaxial cable is composed of two conductors. One of the conductors is an inner insulated conductor. This inner conductor is surrounded by another conductor. This second conductor is sometimes made of a metallic foil or woven wire.
collision A collision occurs when two devices on an Ethernet network simultaneously transmit a frame. Because an Ethernet segment cannot handle more than one frame at a time, both frames become corrupted.
content switch Can be used to load balance requests for content across a group of servers containing that content.
crimper Used to attach a connector (for example, an RJ-45 connector) to the end of an unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable.
customer premise equipment (CPE) This device resides at a customer site. A router, as an example, can be a CPE that connects a customer with an MPLS service provider.
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) A mathematical algorithm that is executed on a data string by both the sender and receiver of the data string. If the calculated CRC values match, the receiver can conclude that the data string was not corrupted during transmission.
data link layer As Layer 2 of the OSI model, this layer is concerned with the packaging of data into frames and transmitting those frames on a network, performing error detection/correction, uniquely identifying network devices with an address, and handling flow control.
dedicated leased line A logical connection interconnecting two sites. This logical connection might physically connect through a service provider’s facility or a telephone company’s central office.
default gateway The IP address of a router (or multilayer switch) to which a networked device sends traffic destined for a subnet other than the device’s local subnet.
default static route A default static route is an administratively configured entry in a router’s routing table that specifies where traffic for all unknown networks should be sent.
demarc Also known as demarcation point or a demarc extension, this is the point in a telephone network where the maintenance responsibility passes from a telephone company to a subscribers
demilitarized zone (DMZ) Often contains servers that should be accessible from the Internet.
designated port In a STP topology, every network segment has a single designated port, which is the port on that segment that is closest to the root bridge, in terms of cost. Therefore, all ports on a root bridge are designated ports.
digital subscriber line (DSL) A group of technologies that provide high-speed data transmission over existing telephone wiring. DSL has several variants, which vary in data rates and distance limitations.
distance vector A category of routing protocol that sends a full copy of its routing table to its directly attached neighbors.
Domain Name System (DNS) server Performs the task of taking a domain name (for example, www.ciscopress.com) and resolving that name into a corresponding IP address (for example,
dotted-decimal notation A method of writing an IPv4 address or subnet mask, where groups of 8 bits (called octets) are separated by periods.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Dynamically assigns IP address information (for example, IP address, subnet mask, DNS server’s IP address, and default gateway’s IP address) to network devices.
Dynamic NAT (DNAT) A variant of NAT in which inside local addresses are automatically assigned an inside global address from a pool of available addresses.
E1 An E1 circuit contains 32 channels, in contrast to the 24 channels on a T1 circuit.
E3 A digital circuit in the same E-carrier family of standards as an E1. An E3 circuit’s available bandwidth is 34.4 Mbps.
electromagnetic interference (EMI) An electromagnetic waveform that can be received by network cable (possibly corrupting data traveling on the cable) or radiated from a network cable (possibly interfering with data traveling on another cable).
electrostatic discharge (ESD) wrist strap To prevent static electricity in your body from damaging electrical components on a circuit board, you can wear an ESD wrist strap.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) A Cisco proprietary protocol. Like OSPF, EIGRP is an IGP with very fast convergence and is very scalable. EIGRP is considered to be an advanced distance vector or a hybrid routing protocol.
Ethernet Ethernet is a Layer 1 technology developed by Xerox and encompasses a variety of standards, which specify various media types, speeds, and distance limitations.
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) A routing protocol that operates between autonomous systems, which are networks under different administrative control. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the only EGP in widespread use today.
Frame Relay A Layer 2 WAN technology that interconnects sites using virtual circuits. These virtual circuits are identified by locally significant data-link connection identifiers (DLCI).
full duplex This connection allows a device to simultaneously transmit and receive data.
full-mesh topology Directly connects every site to every other site.
half duplex A half-duplex connection allows a device to either receive or transmit data at any one time. However, a half-duplex device cannot simultaneously transmit and receive.
hub An Ethernet hub is an older technology used to interconnect network components, such as clients and servers.ats that traffic out all of its other ports.
hub-and-spoke topology When interconnecting multiple sites (for example, multiple corporate locations) via WAN links, a hub-and-spoke topology has a WAN link from each remote site (a spoke site) to the main site (the hub site).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A digital telephony technology that supports multiple 64-kbps channels (known as bearer channels or B channels) on a single connection. protocols run on a separate channel in an ISDN circuit (known as the delta channel, data channel, or D channel).
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) An routing protocol that operates within an autonomous system, which is a network under a single administrative control. OSPF and EIGRP are popular examples of IGPs.
Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) A link-state routing protocol similar in its operation to OSPF. IS-IS uses a configurable, yet dimensionless, metric associated with an interface and runs Dijkstra’s shortest path first algorithm.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) A multicast protocol used between clients and routers to let routers know which of their interfaces has a multicast receiver attached.
Internet layer This layer of the TCP/IP stack maps to Layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI model. the Internet layer of the TCP/IP stack focuses on IP as the protocol to be routed through a network.
IP Security (IPsec) A type of VPN that provides confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.
ipconfig command A Microsoft Windows command that can be used to display IP address configuration parameters on a PC.
Kerberos A client-server authentication protocol that supports mutual authentication between a client and a server.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) A VPN protocol that lacks security features, such as encryption. However, L2TP can still be used for a secure VPN connection if it is combined with another protocol that provides encryption.
link aggregation As defined by the IEEE 802.3ad standard, link aggregation allows multiple physical connections to be logically bundled into a single logical connection.
link efficiency To make the most of the limited bandwidth available on slower speed links, you might choose to implement compression or link fragmentation and interleaving (LFI). These QoS mechanisms are examples of link efficiency mechanisms.
link-local IP address A link-local IP address is a nonroutable IP address usable only on a local subnet.
link state A category of routing protocol that maintains a topology of a network and uses an algorithm to determine the shortest path to a destination network.
link-state advertisement (LSA) Sent by routers in a network to advertise the networks the routers know how to reach. Routers use those LSAs to construct a topological map of a network. The algorithm run against this topological map is Dijkstra’s shortest path first algorithm.
local-area network (LAN) Interconnects network components within a local region (for example, within a building).
local loop A connection between a customer premise and a local telephone company’s central office.
logical topology The actual traffic flow of a network determines the network’s logical topology.
maximum transmission unit (MTU) The largest packet size supported on an interface.
media Devices need to be interconnected via some sort of media. This media could be copper cabling. Alternatively, it could be a fiber-optic cable.
metric A value assigned to a route, and lower metrics are preferred over higher metrics.
metropolitan-area network (MAN) Interconnects locations scattered throughout a metropolitan area.
multicast A multicast communication flow is a one-to-many flow.
multilayer switch Like a router, a multilayer switch can make traffic forwarding decisions based on Layer 3 information.
multimode fiber (MMF) Multimode fiber-optic cabling has a core with a diameter large enough to permit the injection of light into the core at multiple angles.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) A WAN technology popular among service providers. MPLS performs labels switching to forward traffic within an MPLS cloud by inserting a 32-bit header (which contains a 20-bit label)
nbtstat command Displays NetBIOS information for IP-based networks. The nbt prefix of the nbtstat command refers to NetBIOS over TCP/IP,
netstat command Can display a variety of information about IP-based connections on a Windows or UNIX host.
Network Address Translation (NAT) Allows private IP addresses (as defined in RFC 1918) to be translated into Internet-routable IP addresses (public IP addresses).
network interface layer The Network Interface Layer of the TCP/IP stack (also known as the network access layer) encompasses the technologies addressed by Layers 1 and 2 (that is, the physical and data link layers) of the OSI model.
network layer Layer 3 of the OSI model, it is primarily concerned with forwarding data based on logical addresses.
next hop A next-hop IP address is an IP address on the next router to which traffic should be forwarded.
nondesignated port In STP terms, nondesignated ports block traffic to create a loop-free topology.
nslookup command Can resolve a FQDN to an IP address on Microsoft Windows and UNIX hosts.
octet A grouping of 8 bits. An IPv4 address consists of four octets (that is, a total of 32 bits).
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) A link-state routing protocol that uses a metric of cost, which is based on the link speed between two routers. OSPF is a popular IGP because of its scalability, fast convergence, and vendor interoperability.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model Commonly referred to as the OSI model or the OSI stack. This seven-layer model categorizes various network technologies.
optical carrier (OC) Optical networks often use OC levels to indicate bandwidth. As a base reference point, the speed of an OC-1 link is 51.84 Mbps.
optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) Detects the location of a fault in a fiber cable by sending light down the fiber-optic cable and measuring the time required for the light to bounce back from the cable fault. The OTDM can then mathematically calculate the location of the fault.
packet-switched connection Similar to a dedicated leased line, because most packet-switched networks are always on. However, unlike a dedicated leased line, packet-switched connections allow multiple customers to share a service provider’s bandwidth.
partial-mesh topology A hybrid of a hub-and-spoke topology and a full-mesh topology. A partial-mesh topology can be designed to provide an optimal route between selected sites, while avoiding the expense of interconnecting every site to every other site.
peer-to-peer network Allows interconnected devices (for example, PCs)
personal-area network (PAN) A network whose scale is smaller than a LAN. As an example, a connection between a PC and a digital camera via a USB cable is considered to be a PAN.
physical layer Layer 1 of the OSI model, it is concerned with the transmission of bits on a network.
physical topology The way a network’s components are physically interconnected determines the network’s physical topology.
ping command One of the most commonly used command-line commands. It can check IP connectivity between two network devices. Multiple platforms (for example, routers, switches, and hosts)
plain old telephone service (POTS) A POTS connection connects a customer device (such as a telephone)
plenum Plenum cabling is fire retardant and minimizes toxic fumes released by network cabling if that cable were to catch on fire.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) A common Layer 2 protocol offering features such as multilink interface, looped link detection, error detection, and authentication.
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) Commonly used between a DSL Modem in a home and SP. Encapsulates PPP within Ehternet frames for remote communication.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) An older VPN protocol Microsoft’s versions of PPTP bundled with various versions of Microsoft Windows were enhanced to offer security features.
Port Address Translation (PAT) A variant of NAT in which multiple inside local IP addresses share a single inside global IP address. PAT can distinguish between different flows based on port numbers.
Power over Ethernet (PoE) Defined by the IEEE 802.3af and 802.3at standards, PoE allows an Ethernet switch to provide power to an attached device
prefix notation A method of indicating how many bits are in a subnet mask. For example, /24 is prefix notation for a 24-bit subnet mask. Prefix notation is also known as slash notation.
presentation layer Layer 6 of the OSI model, it is responsible for the formatting of data being exchanged and securing the data with encryption.
primary rate interface (PRI) A PRI circuit is an ISDN circuit built on a T1 or E1 circuit. Recall that a T1 circuit has 24 channels.
private IP addresses Specific Class A, B, and C networks have been designed for private use. routable within the organization, service providers do not route these private networks over the public Internet.
protocol data unit (PDU) The name given to data at different layers of the OSI model. Specifically, the PDU for Layer 4 is segment. The Layer 3 PDU is packet, the Layer 2 PDU is frame, and the Layer 1 PDU is bit.
public switched telephone network (PSTN) The worldwide telephony network consisting of multiple telephone carriers.
punch-down tool When terminating wires on a punch-down block (for example, a 110 block), you should use a punch-down tool, which is designed to properly insert an insulated wire between two contact blades in a punch down block, without damaging the blades.
ring topology In a ring topology, traffic flows in a circular fashion around a closed network loop (that is, a ring). Typically, a ring topology sends data, in a single direction, to each connected device in turn, until the intended destination receives the data.
root port In a STP topology, every nonroot bridge has a single root port, which is the port on that switch that is closest to the root bridge, in terms of cost.
route command Can add, modify, or delete routes in the IP routing table of Microsoft Windows and UNIX hosts. In addition, the route command can be used to view the IP routing table of Microsoft Windows hosts.
routed protocol A protocol with an addressing scheme (for example, IP)
router A router is considered a Layer 3 device, meaning that it makes its forwarding decisions based on logical network addresses. Most modern networks use IP addressing.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) A distance-vector routing protocol that uses a metric of hop count. The maximum number of hops between two routers in an RIP-based network is 15. Therefore, a hop count of 16 is considered to be infinite. RIP is considered to be an IGP.
routing protocol A routing protocol (for example, RIP, OSPF, or EIGRP)
satellite (WAN technology) Provides WAN access to sites where terrestrial WAN solutions are unavailable. Satellite WAN connections can suffer from long round-trip delay (which can be unacceptable for latency-sensitive applications)
server As its name suggests, a server serves up resources to a network. These resources might include e-mail access as provided by an e-mail server, web pages as provided by a web server, or files available on a file server.
session layer As Layer 5 of the OSI model, it’s responsible for setting up, maintaining, and tearing down sessions.
shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable STP cabling prevents wires in a cable from acting as an antenna, which might receive or transmit EMI. STP cable might have a metallic shielding, similar to the braided wire that acts as an outer conductor in a coaxial cable.
short A short occurs when two copper connectors touch each other, resulting in current flowing through that short rather than the attached electrical circuit, because the short has lower resistance.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) A protocol used to monitor and manage network devices, such as routers, switches, and servers.
single-mode fiber (SMF) SMF cabling has a core with a diameter large enough to permit only a single path for light pulses (that is, only one mode of propagation). By having a single path for light to travel, SMF eliminates the concern of multimode delay distortion.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Defined by the IEEE 802.1D standard, it allows a network to have redundant Layer 2 connections, while logical preventing a loop, which could lead to symptoms such as broadcast storms and MAC address table corruption.
split horizon This feature of a distance-vector routing protocol prevents a route learned on one interface from being advertised back out of that same interface.
star topology In a star topology, a network has a central point (for example, a switch)
switch Ethernet switch interconnects network components. a switch doesn’t simply take traffic in on one port and forward copies of that traffic out all other ports. Rather, a switch learns which devices reside off of which ports. As a result, when traffic comes
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) A Layer 1 technology that uses fiber-optic cabling as its media. Because SONET is a Layer 1 technology, uses fiber-optic cabling, it offers high data rates, typically in the 155-Mbps to 10-Gbps range, and long-distance limitations,
T1 T1 circuits were originally used in telephony networks, with the intent of one voice conversation being carried in a single channel (that is, a single DS0). A T1 circuit consists of 24 DS0s, and the bandwidth of a T1 circuit is 1.544 Mbps.
T3 In the same T-carrier family of standards as a T1, a T3 circuit offers an increased bandwidth capacity. a resulting bandwidth capacity of 44.7 Mbps.
TCP/IP stack Also known as the DoD model, this four-layer model (as opposed to the seven-layer OSI model)
telco A telephone company. Some countries have government-maintained telcos, and other countries have multiple telcos that compete with one another.
time-division multiplexing (TDM) Supports different communication sessions (for example, different telephone conversations in a telephony network)
Time To Live (TTL) The TTL field in an IP header is decremented once for each router hop. Therefore, if the value in a TTL field is reduced to 0, a router discards the frame and sends a time exceeded ICMP message back to the source.
tip and ring The red and green wires found in an RJ-11 wall jacks, which carry voice, ringing voltage, and signaling information between an analog device (for example, a phone or a modem)
tracert command A Microsoft Windows-based command that displays every router hop along the path from a source host to a destination host on an IP network.
traceroute command A UNIX command that display every router hop along the path from a source host to a destination host on an IP network. Information about the router hop can include the IP address of the router hop and the round-trip delay of that router hop.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A connection-oriented transport protocol. Connection-oriented transport protocols provide reliable transport, in that if a segment is dropped, the sender can detect that drop and retransmit that dropped segment.
transport layer (OSI model) As Layer 4 of the OSI model, it acts as a dividing line between the upper layers and lower layers. Specifically, messages are taken from the upper layers (Layers 5[nd]7)
transport layer (TCP/IP stack) The transport layer of the TCP/IP stack maps to Layer 4 (transport layer)
trunk In the context of an Ethernet network, a trunk is a single physical or logical connection that simultaneously carries traffic for multiple VLANs. However, a trunk also refers to an interconnection between telephone switches, in the context of telephony.
twisted-pair cable Today’s most popular media type is twisted-pair cable, where individually insulated copper strands are intertwined into a twisted-pair cable. Two categories of twisted-pair cable include shielded twisted pair (STP)
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable Blocks EMI from the copper strands making up a twisted-pair cable by twisting the strands more tightly (that is, more twists per centimeter [cm]). By wrapping these strands around each other, the wires insulate each other from EMI.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A connectionless transport protocol. Connectionless transport protocols provide unreliable transport, in that if a segment is dropped, the sender is unaware of the drop, and no retransmission occurs.
virtual LAN (VLAN) A single broadcast domain, representing a single subnet. Typically, a group of ports on a switch are assigned to a single VLAN. For traffic to travel between two VLANs, that traffic needs to be routed.
virtual private network (VPN) Some VPNs can support secure communication between two sites over an untrusted network (for example, the Internet).
wide-area network (WAN) Interconnects network components that are geographically separated.
wide-area network (WAN) link An interconnection between two devices in a WAN
Zeroconf A technology that performs three basic functions: assigning link-local IP addresses, resolving computer names to IP addresses, and locating network services.
Created by: Leisac