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QuestionAnswer
Acute hemolytic transfusions are caused by what 80% of the time? Clerical Errors
Proteus miribilis indole neg, phenylalnine pos, urease pos
Proteus vulgaris indole pos, phenylalnine neg, urease neg
This can cause a mild allergic reaction to a transfusion Plasma proteins
In thin layer chromatography... distance the solute travels / distance the solvent travels = Rf (retention factor)
Bence-Jones proteinuria is present in... Multiple Myeloma Amyloidosis Macroglobulinemia
Providencia spp. non-lactose nor sucrose fermenter neg for H2S lysine, urea, citrate neg phenylalanine pos indole pos
An organism that cannot utilize glucose either oxidatively or via fermentation - no color change; stays green Asaccharolytic
Inherited metabolic disorder that cannot metabolize galactose efficiently. This will not be picked up by the glucose reagent strips, but clinitest will be positive Galactosemia
Risk values for CVD using High sensitivity C- Reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) < 1.0 low 1.0 - 3.0 average >3.0 High 10.0 acute inflammatory
Large, one-celled, dimorphic,smooth tuberculate macroconidia with a prickly surface. found in bat guano. Use Giemsa or Wright's Stain. Use BHI agar Histoplasm capsulatum
What agar is used in the identification of mycoplasm spp.? PPLO agar
unassayed controls means? unknowns
Caused by the inhalation of spores. Endemic in the SE US area. Balloon shapped conidiosphores. very easy to covert from mold to yeast form. Blastomyces dermatitidis
majority of the rbcs are acanthocytes abetalipoproteinemia
What should be done if all of the patient's foward and reverse types are negative? Incubate all testing tubes at 22 degrees
What tumor marker is elevated for both high risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease ApoB/ApoA1 ApoB increases as the risk increases ApoA1 increases as the risk decreases
This can be triggered by parovirus B19 infection and/or folic acid deficiency. A transient cessation of bone marrow activity seen in sickle cell anemia. Characterized by decrease in production of retics. Hbg & Hct will fall dramatically low Aplasticerisis
What hyaline mold will have germ tubes extending from both sides of a conidium.? Frequently causes nail infections and sinusitis. "Bent Knee" Bipolaris spp.
What immunoglobulin will react best at room temp? IgM
Decreased haptoglobulin levels will occur in ? intravascular hemolysis
PAS stains are used for? body fluids, exudates, tissue homogenates, sputum and bronchial washings - fungi will stain magenta
Fungal serology is most helpful in identifying...? Histoplasmosis, Coccidodomycosis, Blastomycosis
What are the most common methods of fungal serology? CF, ID, LA, ELISA
Used to detect early Aspergillus infections in transplant patients? Galactomannan antigen detection
Gold-standard anti-fungal drug Amphotericin B - given thru IV (very expensive and has adverse reactions)
Anti-fungal for dermatophytes? Griseofluvin (for systemic infections)
What hyaline mold will cause mycotic keratitis? Fusarium spp.
Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by which type of mold? Dematiaceous
"tree-like" conidia with shield cells Cladosporium
Large smooth-walled, club shaped macroconidia. No microconidia. Causes dermatophytosis of the nails and groins. Epidermophyton floccosum
Most infectious dimorphic mold in the world. Endemic in SW US. Thick walled barrel shaped arthroconidia with alternating empty disjunctor cells. Grows rapidly. Diagnostic from travel history. Exoantigen test done to confirm isolate. Coccidioides immitis
Steps of the Ziehl-Neelson & Kinyoun stain? Carbolfuchsin (heat w/ Ziehl, cold w/ Kinyoun) Decolorize w/ acid alcohol counter stain
Rapid mycobacterium growers? marinium,ulcerans, haemophilium (30-32 deg) xenopi (42 deg)
Niacin pos, nitrate reduction pos, nonchromogenic, buff color mycobacterium? tuberculosis
Immunodiagnosis of TB? Quantiferon-TB gold measures interferon-gamma prodcution of cells stimulated by mycobacterial antigens
Common ESBL producers? K.pneumo with some enterobacteriaceae
How can chlamydia be detected? cell-culture with fluorecein labeled abs serology DNA
walking pneumo, diagnosed by IgM testing Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Double zone hemoloysis. anaerobic clostridium perfringens
pseudomembranous colitis, toxin A & B, treat with metronidazole or vanco. diagnosed w/ PCR, toxin assay, and glutamate dehydrogenase c. diff
bile esculin pos, anaerobic GNR, infects soft tissue. most common anaerobe isolated. 1st to product beta lactamase Bacteroides fragilis
melanogencia, bile sens., brick red under UV light, Ubiquitous in oral cavity Prevotella spp.
What factor does not cause bleeding tendencies or abnormal coag problems in vivo? Factor XII (Hageman factor)
A fixed concentration of labeled antigen is incubated with a constant amount of antiserum such that the concentration of antigen binding sites on the antibody is limiting. competitive radioimmunoassay
Ref. range for HCO3? 22-26 mEq/L (if increased -> metabolic)
In a panel cell, homozygous cells are ruled out for the corresponding antigen because? they react stronger than heterozygous & have a double dose of antigen on the red cell
What do you do with CSF if it is left out longer than 1 hour? leave it at room temp
How do you differentiate between Pappenheimer bodies and Howell-Jowell bodies? Use prussian blue stain for pappenheimer. pappenheimers contain iron so they will remain blue. Both however will stain with Wright-Giemsa stain
What additive is used for blood gas anaylsis? Heparin
Reed-Sternberg cells, bands of fibrosis, and various sized lymphocytes are in which type of lymphoma? Hodgkin's
This causes tinea capitis is children but almost never adults. Microsporum audouinii
When should a pipette be wiped off? Prior to lowering the meniscus to the cal mark
How long should a potential donor be deferred if they have been previously transfused? 1 year
Too much antibody? Prozone
Too much antigen? Postzone
match lectins to the corresponding antigen Dolichos biflorus A1 Ulex europeus H Vicia graminea N Iberis amara M
Genetic Weak D D antigens are complete but fewer in number, most frequently seen in African Americans
C Trans Weak D the C allele is inherited in the cis position, but when its is inherited in the trans position it will effect the expression of D
Partial D (Mosaic D) one or more of the epitopes with the entire D protein is missing or altered
Anti- i is associated w/ ? Infectious mononucleosis Lymphoproliferative disease Occasionally cold hemagglutinin disease
The P, P1 and Pk antigens are receptors for which bacteria and viruses Pk antigen is a receptor for toxins produced by S. dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic E. coli P antigen is a receptor for parvo-B19 virus P, P1 and Pk are all receptors for uropathogenic E. coli
How do you prevent Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) ? Patients should receive rbc units rather than whole blood. should be administered at a slow rate
What antibodies are responsible for HDFN? Anti-D Anti-c Anti-K
Amino acid analysis should be collected in which tube? heparin tube w/ plasma quickly removed from cells
Albumin will be _____ in liver and kidney dieseases decreased
Haptoglobin will be _____ in hemolytic anemia decreased
This is the gold standard for Acute Coronary syndrome.. Troponin
Sudan Black B is used to differentiate ____? myeloid and lymphoid blasts myeloblasts will stain POS
Esterases are used to differentiate____? monoblasts and myeloblasts myeloblasts are positive for specific esterases and monoblasts are positive for nonspecific esterases
A low LAP is associated with? CML
PAS is helpful in diagnosing? ALL
Fab binds antigen by? One light chain and half of the heavy chain
Does the Fc fragment bind antigen? No, but it does however fix complement
What serological test is most sensitive to primary syphillis? FTA-ABS
What components are required in PCR 1) thermostable DNA polymerase (taq) 2) deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) 3) DNA of interest 4) oligonnucleotide primers
What are the steps required in PCR? 1) Denaturation 95 C 2) Annealing 52 C 3) Elongation 72 C
What is the gold standard for detecting hep C? reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
What happens to a urine specimen if it is left sitting out for more than 2 hours? color darkens clarity decreases odor increases pH increases glucose decreases Ketones, bilirubin, and urobilionogens decrease
Creatinine clearance formula urine creatinine X Total volume X Aver. BSA (1.73) serum creatinine 1440 (min) Actual BSA
sulfosalicyclic acid test cold precipitation test, Reacts with all forms of protein equally, Must be performed on centrifuged specimens
Acetest used to detect ketones in serum or urine
What does the reagent strip use in the detection of bilirubin? diazotized 2,4-dichloroaniline
What is the IctoTest for? confirmation of bilirubin
When is urobilinogen increased? early liver disorders and hemolytic disorders
Oval fat bodies in the urine are found in? Nephrotic syndrome (lipiduria)
What is the major protein in mucus? Tamm-Horsfall protein
What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis? IgA nephropathy (Berger disease) mostly seen in children and young adults increased levels of serum IgA
Nephrotic syndrome massive proteinuria low albumin high lipids pronounced edema oval fat bodies
Where are RTE cells found? Acute tubular necrosis
Fanconi syndrome most frequently associated with tubular dysfunction glucose, amino acids, K, Na, and Bicarb are affected
UA of renal failure would look like? marked decrease in GFR rising serum BUN and creatinine electrolyte imbalance granular,waxy, and broad casts
Created by: 1148166581877434