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|Acute hemolytic transfusions are caused by what 80% of the time?
|indole neg, phenylalnine pos, urease pos
|indole pos, phenylalnine neg, urease neg
|This can cause a mild allergic reaction to a transfusion
|In thin layer chromatography...
|distance the solute travels / distance the solvent travels = Rf (retention factor)
|Bence-Jones proteinuria is present in...
|Multiple Myeloma Amyloidosis Macroglobulinemia
|non-lactose nor sucrose fermenter neg for H2S lysine, urea, citrate neg phenylalanine pos indole pos
|An organism that cannot utilize glucose either oxidatively or via fermentation - no color change; stays green
|Inherited metabolic disorder that cannot metabolize galactose efficiently. This will not be picked up by the glucose reagent strips, but clinitest will be positive
|Risk values for CVD using High sensitivity C- Reactive Protein (Hs-CRP)
|< 1.0 low 1.0 - 3.0 average >3.0 High 10.0 acute inflammatory
|Large, one-celled, dimorphic,smooth tuberculate macroconidia with a prickly surface. found in bat guano. Use Giemsa or Wright's Stain. Use BHI agar
|What agar is used in the identification of mycoplasm spp.?
|unassayed controls means?
|Caused by the inhalation of spores. Endemic in the SE US area. Balloon shapped conidiosphores. very easy to covert from mold to yeast form.
|majority of the rbcs are acanthocytes
|What should be done if all of the patient's foward and reverse types are negative?
|Incubate all testing tubes at 22 degrees
|What tumor marker is elevated for both high risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease
|ApoB/ApoA1 ApoB increases as the risk increases ApoA1 increases as the risk decreases
|This can be triggered by parovirus B19 infection and/or folic acid deficiency. A transient cessation of bone marrow activity seen in sickle cell anemia. Characterized by decrease in production of retics. Hbg & Hct will fall dramatically low
|What hyaline mold will have germ tubes extending from both sides of a conidium.? Frequently causes nail infections and sinusitis. "Bent Knee"
|What immunoglobulin will react best at room temp?
|Decreased haptoglobulin levels will occur in ?
|PAS stains are used for?
|body fluids, exudates, tissue homogenates, sputum and bronchial washings - fungi will stain magenta
|Fungal serology is most helpful in identifying...?
|Histoplasmosis, Coccidodomycosis, Blastomycosis
|What are the most common methods of fungal serology?
|CF, ID, LA, ELISA
|Used to detect early Aspergillus infections in transplant patients?
|Galactomannan antigen detection
|Gold-standard anti-fungal drug
|Amphotericin B - given thru IV (very expensive and has adverse reactions)
|Anti-fungal for dermatophytes?
|Griseofluvin (for systemic infections)
|What hyaline mold will cause mycotic keratitis?
|Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by which type of mold?
|"tree-like" conidia with shield cells
|Large smooth-walled, club shaped macroconidia. No microconidia. Causes dermatophytosis of the nails and groins.
|Most infectious dimorphic mold in the world. Endemic in SW US. Thick walled barrel shaped arthroconidia with alternating empty disjunctor cells. Grows rapidly. Diagnostic from travel history. Exoantigen test done to confirm isolate.
|Steps of the Ziehl-Neelson & Kinyoun stain?
|Carbolfuchsin (heat w/ Ziehl, cold w/ Kinyoun) Decolorize w/ acid alcohol counter stain
|Rapid mycobacterium growers?
|marinium,ulcerans, haemophilium (30-32 deg) xenopi (42 deg)
|Niacin pos, nitrate reduction pos, nonchromogenic, buff color mycobacterium?
|Immunodiagnosis of TB?
|Quantiferon-TB gold measures interferon-gamma prodcution of cells stimulated by mycobacterial antigens
|Common ESBL producers?
|K.pneumo with some enterobacteriaceae
|How can chlamydia be detected?
|cell-culture with fluorecein labeled abs serology DNA
|walking pneumo, diagnosed by IgM testing
|Double zone hemoloysis. anaerobic
|pseudomembranous colitis, toxin A & B, treat with metronidazole or vanco. diagnosed w/ PCR, toxin assay, and glutamate dehydrogenase
|bile esculin pos, anaerobic GNR, infects soft tissue. most common anaerobe isolated. 1st to product beta lactamase
|melanogencia, bile sens., brick red under UV light, Ubiquitous in oral cavity
|What factor does not cause bleeding tendencies or abnormal coag problems in vivo?
|Factor XII (Hageman factor)
|A fixed concentration of labeled antigen is incubated with a constant amount of antiserum such that the concentration of antigen binding sites on the antibody is limiting.
|Ref. range for HCO3?
|22-26 mEq/L (if increased -> metabolic)
|In a panel cell, homozygous cells are ruled out for the corresponding antigen because?
|they react stronger than heterozygous & have a double dose of antigen on the red cell
|What do you do with CSF if it is left out longer than 1 hour?
|leave it at room temp
|How do you differentiate between Pappenheimer bodies and Howell-Jowell bodies?
|Use prussian blue stain for pappenheimer. pappenheimers contain iron so they will remain blue. Both however will stain with Wright-Giemsa stain
|What additive is used for blood gas anaylsis?
|Reed-Sternberg cells, bands of fibrosis, and various sized lymphocytes are in which type of lymphoma?
|This causes tinea capitis is children but almost never adults.
|When should a pipette be wiped off?
|Prior to lowering the meniscus to the cal mark
|How long should a potential donor be deferred if they have been previously transfused?
|Too much antibody?
|Too much antigen?
|match lectins to the corresponding antigen
|Dolichos biflorus A1 Ulex europeus H Vicia graminea N Iberis amara M
|Genetic Weak D
|D antigens are complete but fewer in number, most frequently seen in African Americans
|C Trans Weak D
|the C allele is inherited in the cis position, but when its is inherited in the trans position it will effect the expression of D
|Partial D (Mosaic D)
|one or more of the epitopes with the entire D protein is missing or altered
|Anti- i is associated w/ ?
|Infectious mononucleosis Lymphoproliferative disease Occasionally cold hemagglutinin disease
|The P, P1 and Pk antigens are receptors for which bacteria and viruses
|Pk antigen is a receptor for toxins produced by S. dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic E. coli P antigen is a receptor for parvo-B19 virus P, P1 and Pk are all receptors for uropathogenic E. coli
|How do you prevent Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) ?
|Patients should receive rbc units rather than whole blood. should be administered at a slow rate
|What antibodies are responsible for HDFN?
|Anti-D Anti-c Anti-K
|Amino acid analysis should be collected in which tube?
|heparin tube w/ plasma quickly removed from cells
|Albumin will be _____ in liver and kidney dieseases
|Haptoglobin will be _____ in hemolytic anemia
|This is the gold standard for Acute Coronary syndrome..
|Sudan Black B is used to differentiate ____?
|myeloid and lymphoid blasts myeloblasts will stain POS
|Esterases are used to differentiate____?
|monoblasts and myeloblasts myeloblasts are positive for specific esterases and monoblasts are positive for nonspecific esterases
|A low LAP is associated with?
|PAS is helpful in diagnosing?
|Fab binds antigen by?
|One light chain and half of the heavy chain
|Does the Fc fragment bind antigen?
|No, but it does however fix complement
|What serological test is most sensitive to primary syphillis?
|What components are required in PCR
|1) thermostable DNA polymerase (taq) 2) deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) 3) DNA of interest 4) oligonnucleotide primers
|What are the steps required in PCR?
|1) Denaturation 95 C 2) Annealing 52 C 3) Elongation 72 C
|What is the gold standard for detecting hep C?
|reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
|What happens to a urine specimen if it is left sitting out for more than 2 hours?
|color darkens clarity decreases odor increases pH increases glucose decreases Ketones, bilirubin, and urobilionogens decrease
|Creatinine clearance formula
|urine creatinine X Total volume X Aver. BSA (1.73) serum creatinine 1440 (min) Actual BSA
|sulfosalicyclic acid test
|cold precipitation test, Reacts with all forms of protein equally, Must be performed on centrifuged specimens
|used to detect ketones in serum or urine
|What does the reagent strip use in the detection of bilirubin?
|What is the IctoTest for?
|confirmation of bilirubin
|When is urobilinogen increased?
|early liver disorders and hemolytic disorders
|Oval fat bodies in the urine are found in?
|Nephrotic syndrome (lipiduria)
|What is the major protein in mucus?
|What is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis?
|IgA nephropathy (Berger disease) mostly seen in children and young adults increased levels of serum IgA
|massive proteinuria low albumin high lipids pronounced edema oval fat bodies
|Where are RTE cells found?
|Acute tubular necrosis
|most frequently associated with tubular dysfunction glucose, amino acids, K, Na, and Bicarb are affected
|UA of renal failure would look like?
|marked decrease in GFR rising serum BUN and creatinine electrolyte imbalance granular,waxy, and broad casts