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Organic Molecules

Study Guide info for Organic Molecules test

hydrocarbon a long chain of carbon atoms that are linked together with hydrogen bonded to it.
2 examples of hydrocarbons coal, gasoline
what is the monomer of carbohydrates? sugars
what elements make up carbohydrates? carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
what is the monomer of a protein amino acids
what elements make up proteins? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and some sulfur
what is the monomer of lipids? fatty acid
what elements make up lipids? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
what are the monomers of nucleic acid? nucleotide
what process joins monomers? dehydration synthesis
why does the body need to do dehydration synthesis? to link together monomers
what process breaks down polymers? hydrolysis
why does the body need to do hydrolysis? to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates that you eat into monomers
monosaccharide 1 simple sugar
what elements make up monosaccharides? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
what are monosaccharides used for? main fuel that cells use for cellular work. immediate energy
disaccharide double sugar
what are disaccharides used for? transport
polysaccharide many sugars
what are the three polysaccharides? starch, glycogen, cellulose
what do starches do? energy storage in plants
what does glycogen do? food storage in animals
what does cellulose do? structural support in plants
organic molecule made by living organisms and contain carbon. Carbon is often used as the BACKBONE of the molecule.
inorganic molecule derived from nonliving things and don't contain carbon.
how many bonds will carbon make with other elements? 4
polymer carbon compounds made up of many monomers
monomer individual small unit molecules
what are the 4 classes of organic molecules? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
isomer molecule with the same chemical formula, but different structural formula.
example of isomers fructose and glucose
saturated fat glycerol molecule. fatty acid tails that have a carbon-carbon as single bonds, and the chain is saturated with hydrogens
unsaturated fat glycerol molecule. fatty avid tails that have one or more double bonds connecting the carbons in the chain.
what is an example of a saturated fat? butter
why are saturated fats solid at room temperature? because it can copy the shape of its neighbor causing layering
what is an example of an unsaturated fat? corn oil
why are unsaturated fats liquid at room temperate? because the double bonds fix the shape not allowing it to copy the shape of its neighboring chains
why do lipids have more energy per gram than carbohydrates? because it contains more carbon-hydrogen and less hydroxyl
what are glycerides used for? long term energy storage
what are phospholipids used for? in cell membrane
what are waxes used for? help conserve water in many plant leaves
how is the structure of a steroid different than a triglyceride? a steroid is a ring of carbons and a triglyceride is a chain
what are steroids used for? physical development from puberty on to old age and fertility cycles
how many types of amino acids are used in living things? 20
what is the role of fibrous proteins? structural role, skin, bones
what are the 4 roles of globular proteins? enzymes that do chemical reactions, transport oxygen to cells, antibodies, hormones to regulate body functions.
what are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? 5 carbon sugar ribose, phosphate, nitrogen- containing base
what is the role of singular nucleotides? temporarily carry energy
what is the role of DNA? stores hereditary information
what is the role of RNA? assisting DNA in making a protein
what are foods that are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids? carb- grains, potatoes pasta proteins- meats lipids- vegetable oils and fats
what is the chemical formula of a monosaccharide? C6H12O6
what is the chemical formula of a disaccharide? C12H22O11
how many water molecules must be removed if 5 monosaccharide monomers join? 4
what is the ratio of carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a monosaccharide? 1:2:1
organic chemistry study of carbon compounds
macromolecules study of large organic molecules
functional groups groups of atoms that give properties to the carbon compounds to which they attach
what kind of energy do carbohydrates give animals? immediate
do mono and di saccharides dissolve readily in water? yes
what is the most abundant organic compound on earth? cellulose
what is cellulose known as in food? dietary fiber
alpha structure sugar molecules identically linked to each other to make coiled chains
beta structure sugar molecules are alternate to each other making straight chains
what is an example of an alpha structure? plant and animal starches
why is cellulose water insoluble? because they are straight chain molecules with hydrogen bonding to each other also making it nondigestible
what polysaccharide contains nitrogen? CHITIN
what is carb and proteins cal/gram 4
what is lipids cal/gram 9
what are glycerides used for? long term energy storage and insulation in animals
saturated fat saturated with hydrogens. no double bonds
unsatured fat has one or more double bonds connecting the carbons.have fewer carbon hydrogen bonds in the chain
monounsaturated fat one double bond
polyunsaturated fat two double bonds
what are hydrogenated oils they replace double bonds of unsaturated fats with single bonds of saturated fats and are hard for your body to break down
HDL good cholesterol
LDL bad cholesterol
what affects the function of a protein? its shape
what are three ways to denature proteins? heating, adding bases, adding acids
what is the shape of fibrous proteins? long chains
what is the shape of globular proteins? a glob
primary structure amino acid sequence
secondary structure folding as a result of hydrogen bonding
tertiary structure secondary folding caused by order of amino acids
quaternary structure different folded chains come together to make a larger protein unit
Created by: edenbreslauer