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Criminology

Ch. 7 Terms

TermDefinition
sociological social psychology the study of human interactions and relationships, emphasizing such issues as group dynamics and socialization
socialization the interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society
social process or socialization theory the view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society
parental efficacy parenting that is supportive, effective, and noncoercive
social learning theory the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, either directly from observing those who are close and from intimate contact, or indirectly through the media
social control theory the view that people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken
social reaction theory (labeling theory) the view that people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity
differential association theory according to Sutherland, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values
differential reinforcement theory an attempt to explain crime as a type of learned behavior
direct conditioning or differential reinforcement behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others
diversion programs programs of rehab that remove offenders from the normal channels of the CJ system, thus avoiding the stigma of a criminal label
negative reinforcement using either negative stimuli (punishment) or loss of reward (negative punishment) to curtail unwanted behaviors
neutralization theory holds that offenders adhere to conventional values while "drifting" into periods of illegal behavior
subterranean values morally tinged influences that have become entrenched into the culture but are publicly condemned
drift according to Matza, the view that youths move in and out of delinquency and that their lifestyles can embrace both conventional and deviant values
commitment to conformity a strong personal investment in conventional institutions, individuals, and processes that prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements
containment theory the idea that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of criminogenic influences in the environment
social bond ties a person has to the institutions and processes of society
symbolic interaction theory the sociological view that people communicate through symbols
stigma an enduring label that taints a person's identity and changes him/her in the eyes of others
reflected appraisals when parents are alienated from their children, their negative labeling reduces their children's self-image and increases delinquency
retrospective reading the reassessment of a person's past to fit a current generalized label
dramatization of evil as the negative feedback of law enforcement agencies, parents, friends, teachers, and other figures amplifies the force of the original label, stigmatized offenders may begin to reevaluate their own identities
primary deviance according to Lemert, deviant acts that do not help redefine the self-image and public image of the offender
secondary deviance according to Lemert, accepting deviant labels as a personal identity
Created by: 449569235237736