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Chapter 5: Work Design and Measurement

Job Design Involves specifying the content and methods of a job
Job Design Objectives Productivity, Safety, Quality of work life
Efficiency School A refinement of Frederick Taylor's scientific management. It's a systematic, logical approach with an aim for labour cost reduction.
Behavioural School Emerged during the 1950s. Emphasis of wants and need. It reminded managers of the complexity of human beings.
Specialization Focusing the job to a narrow scope
Advantages of specialization Simplifies training, high productivity, low wage costs, low education requirements, minimum responsibility, little mental effort
Disadvantages of specialization Difficult to motivate quality, worker dissatisfaction, absenteeism, high turnover, disruptive tactics, monotonous work, limited opportunities for advancement, little control over work, little self-fulfillment
Behavioural Approach Awareness of motivational factors. May include: Job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment
Job Enlargement Giving a worker a larger portion of the total activity by horizontal loading
Job Rotation Workers periodically exchange jobs
Job Enrichment Increasing employee responsibility for planning, execution and control of tasks, by vertical loading
Self-Directed Teams Groups who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain decisions and changes in their work
Methods Analysis Breaks down the job into sequence of tasks/elements/motions and improves it
Basic procedure of methods analysis 1. Identify the job to be studied and gather information. 2. Discuss the job with the worker and supervisor 2. Document and analyze the present method. 3. Question the present method and propose a new one
Process Charts Chart used to examine the sequence of tasks by focusing on movements of the worker or flow of materials
Worker-machine chart Helps to see portions of work cycle during which a worker and equipment are busy or idle. Can help to determine how many machines one operator can manage.
Motion Study The systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation. This is used to eliminate unnecessary motions and to identify the best sequence of motions.
Motion economy principles Guidelines for designing motion - efficient work procedures
Analysis of elemental motions (therbligs) Basic elemental motions into which a job can be broken down
Micro motion study Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze
Simo/two hand process chart A chart that shows the elements performed by each hand, side by side, over time
Canadian Labour Code Safety and other work standard. Workers have rights to refuse dangerous work, participate in improving health & safety, know about hazards in the workplace
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) mandates proper labeling of hazardous material. Making available material safety data sheets
Working Conditions Temperature&Humidity, Ventilation, Illumination, Ergonomics, Noise&Vibration, Work Breaks&Hours, Safety, Causes of Accidents
Ergonomics Involves fitting the job to the worker's capability and size
Standard Time The amount of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specific task
Stopwatch Time Study Development of a time standard based on observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles
Basic steps in a time study 1. Define the task to be studied. 2. Determine the number of cycles to observe. 3. Time the job. 4. Compute the standard time
Work Sampling Technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker or machine spends on each activity or is idle
Created by: 13rallie



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