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Criminology

Ch. 6 Terms

DefinitionTerm
Communities where social institutions are incapable of functioning as expected and as a result their ability to create social control is nullified Socially disorganized
Grouping according to social strata or levels Stratified society
The lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society Underclass
The view that people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with its own values and norms that are in conflict with conventional society; the culture is self-maintaining and ongoing Culture of poverty
Children and adults who lack the education and skills needed to be effectively in demand in modern society At-risk
The view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime Social structure theory
Branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown of institutions such as family, school, and employment in inner-city neighborhoods Social disorganization theory
Branch of social theory that sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them Strain theory
The emotional turmoil and conflict caused when people believe the cannot achieve their desires and goals through legitimate means Strain
Branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts with conventional social norms Cultural deviance theory
Areas undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed use Transitional neighborhoods
Working- and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, resulting in the most disadvantaged population being consolidated in the most disorganized urban neighborhoods Concentration effect
Rude and uncivil behavior; behavior that indicates little caring for the feelings of others Incivilities
Residents who become so suspicious of authority that they consider the outside world to be the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood Siege mentality
A residential renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded; areas undergoing such change seem to experience an increase in their crime rates Gentrification
Social control exerted by cohesive communities, based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order Collective efficacy
A concept in which more cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration foster the ability for kids to use their wits to avoid violent confrontations and to feel safe in their own neighborhood Street efficacy
The condition that exists when people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another Relative deprivation
One in which rules of behavior have broken down or become inoperative during periods of rapid social change or social crisis Anomie
A characteristic of preindustrial society, which is held together by traditions, shared values, and unquestioned beliefs Mechanical solidarity
Postindustrial social systems, which are highly developed and dependent upon the division of labor Organic solidarity
A modified version of the concept of anomie to fit social, economic, and cultural conditions found in modern U.S. society Theory of anomie
The view that anomie pervades U.S. culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undermines social and community values Institutional anomie theory
The goal of accumulating material goods and wealth through individual competition; the process of being socialized to pursue material success and to believe it is achievable American Dream
The view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality General strain theory (GST)
Anger, depression, disappointment, fear, and other adverse emotions that derive from strain Negative affective states
Groups that are loosely part of the dominant culture but maintain a unique set of values, beliefs, and traditions Subcultures
Behaviors expected of social group members Conduct norms
A condition brought about when the rules and norms of an individual's subcultural affiliation conflict with the role demands of conventional society Culture conflict
The value orientations of lower-class cultures; features include the needs for excitement, trouble, smartness, and personal autonomy Focal concerns
A form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society Status frustration
The standards by which teachers and other reps. of state authority evaluate lower-class youths Middle-class measuring rods
A role in the lower-class culture in which young men remain in their birth neighborhood, acquire families and mental jobs, and adjust to the demands of their environment Corner boy
A disadvantaged youth who embraces the cultural and social values of the middle class and actively strives to be successful by those standards College boy
A youth who adopts a set of norms and principles in direct opposition to middle-class values, engaging in short-run hedonism, living for today and letting tomorrow take care of itself Delinquent boy
Rejecting goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve Reaction formation
The view that lower-class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals Differential opportunity
Created by: 449569235237736
 

 



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