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AcDec Music

THS AcDec Music Basic Guide

QuestionAnswer
Frequency- used to measure the rate of sound wave vibrations
Pitch- the highness or lowness of sound
Octave- the interval from one tone to another tone that is 8 full tones above or below the original tone
Chromatic Scale- the set of twelve pitches contained withing the octave
Equal temperment tuning- tuning to equally spaced frequencies
Dynamics- the volume or intensity of a piece of music
Piano- quiet
Forte- loud
Fortissimo- very loud
mezzo piano- medium quiet
mezzo forte- medium loud
crescendo- growing
decrescendo- diminishing
timbre- tone color or the quality of the sound that distinguishes it from other sounds of the same pitch and volume
harmonics- sounds heard together, when a sound is produced by a vibrating string or air column through its vibrations in parts (in two halves, then thirds, and so on)
beat- the increase and decrease in the amplitude as a pulse
dissonance- the combination of sounds that are rough and inharmonious
consonance- combination of sounds that are smooth and harmonious
resonance- the amplification or prolongation of a musical tone produced by sympathetic vibration
rhythm- the organization of sounds and silences through time
tempo- speed in which the piece is performed
meter- the specific rhythm that is determined by the number of beats and by the pattern of recurrng stresses on certain beats
measure- the unit that is used to group beats into sets in accordance with the meter
staff- the set of 5 horizontal lines and 4 intermediate spaces that music is written on
bar line- The lines that separates one measure from the next
bar- another name for a measure; the unit that is used to group beats into sets in accordance with the meter
Down beat- the first beat of a measure which is usually the strongest beat of the measure
syncopation- created when accents occur at unexpected times on usually unaccented beats or in between beats
Clef sign- indicates the pitch represented by one line of the staff
rest- symbols used to indicate silences of differing lengths
time signature- indicates how many beats are in each measure and what note values recieve one beat
treble clef- indicates that the second line from the bottom of the staff is the note "G"; also called "G" Clef
Bass Clef used to indicate the lower notes; also called "F" Clef
Scale- the sequence of rising or falling pitches
Diatonic scale- the scale of seven tones per octave although there is an 8th tone, it is simply a repitition of the first tone
Tonality- the organization of music around a particular tone
dominant- the 5th tone of a major scale
leading tone- the 7th tone of the major scale
key signature- the flats and sharps in a given key
Harmony- when a musician sounds more than one pitch at any given moment
Chord- refers to three or more tones sounded simultaneously
Triad- a three note chord
cadence- progression of notes or chords that give closure to a passage of music
Monophonic- refers to a single strand of melody that performs that accompaniment
Polyphonic- music that consists of two or more independent melodies
Homophony- created when a primary melody is supported by other notes in the selected scale
Heterophony- single melody that is played or sung by two or more different instruments or singers simultaneously
Homorhythmic- technique in which the melody and the supporting parts are performed with similiar rhythms
Polyrhythmic- technique in which the melody and the supporting parts are performed with different rhythms
form- refers to the various ways in which musical elements are structured using repitition, variation, and contrast
Fugue- a form that uses polyphonic texture and patterns of melodic repitition
motet- same as Fugue; a form that uses polyphonic texture and patterns of melodic repitition
Binary form- a form comprised of two sections; the first section usually leads tonally from the tonic to the dominant and the second section from the dominant to the tonic
Rounded Binary- an extension of binary form wherein the first section is repeated at the end
ternary- each section is self-contained and provides harmonic resolution
rondo- a form that has a repeating "A" section that alternates with two or more contrasting sections
Verse/chorus or verse/refrain- Binary form in which the verse section usually comes first and when it is repeated later in the song, the lyrics are different, and the melody may also differ slightly
Bridge- a contrasting section that usually comes before the final chorus
through-composed- when a poem or lyrics are set to music
theme and variation- a musical form that begins with a basic melody that is repeated multiple times, each time featuring a variation of one or more elements
sonata- a form that features three sections: exposition, developement, and recapitulation
Coda- a passage at the end of a movement or composition that brings it to a formal close
12-bar blues- a form in which the first phrase is repeated and then is resolved by a third phrase
Soprano- highest female part
Mezzo-soprano- the middle range of a female part
alto- lower range of a female part; also called contralto
tenor- highest male part
baritone- middle part for a male
Bass- lowest male part
Idiophones- istruments that are struck, scraped, rubbed, or bowed without stretching the material of the instrument
Membranophones- percussive instruments that have a membrane stretched over a frame
aerophones- produce sounds from a vibrating column of air
chordophones- instruments whose vibrations are produced by a stretched string that is plucked, struck, or bowed
electrophones- vibrations are produced via oscillating electronic circuits
Reed- vibrating piece of wood used to create sound on a woodwind instrument
Plainsong- Latin text of Mass sung in a chant-like fashion by the monks of the church; a single line of text and melody that is sung either by a priest, a choir singing in unison, or by priest and choir in alternation
Gregorian chants- same as Plainsong; popular name for plainsong known since the reign of Pope Gregory(590-604)
Melisma- several notes often sung succesively on one syllable
Organum- the second melody that paralleled the original chant, usually at an interval of an octave or a fifth
chorales- a traditional German hymn
Madrigals- secular works written for several voice parts
Chansons- secular songs that often set popular French poetry to music
Pavane- dance music in duple meter
Galliard- dance music in triple meter
Continuo- slow changing chords on a harpsichord or a lute
Concerto- pieces with contrasting textures, which usually featured a solo voice, or voices in contrast with larger groups
Word Painting- where text is used as a model for the melody such that the melody sought to express the meaning of the text musically
Oratorio- tells a story vocally with orchestral accompaniment; however the story is Biblical in nature
Symphony- developed from the late baroque orchestral overtures that were played at the beginning of operas
Movements- a self-contained section
Program music- music that describes a nonmusical subject, such as a story, object, or scene, through the use of musical effects
Ballet- musical stories that are portrayed by dancers with music being played
Symphonic Poems- orchestral works that musically express ideas taken from paintings, poems, dramas, natural landscapes, or other nonmusical sources
Leitmotif- a recognizable theme or musical idea that represents a character or concept in a dramatic work
Created by: THSAcDec